Water scarcity driven by climate change, growing demand, and inefficient management of water and related infrastructure is a serious threat to livelihoods in the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) of Central Asia. In recent decades, downstream water shortages have become increasingly common and inflows into the Aral Sea have become very limited. Meanwhile, water losses are enormous both at conveyance and field levels because of outdated infrastructure and the dominance of highly inefficient basin and furrow irrigation methods.
This paper analyzes the political and institutional factors which are behind the dramatic changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the transition countries in East Asia, Central Asia, and the rest of the former Soviet Union, and in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper explains why these changes have occurred and why there are large differences among transition countries in the extent and the nature of the remaining distortions.
This report presents the results of extensive work of the smart green infrastructure task force commissioned by the World Bank under the Global Tiger Initiative (GTI). The report benefited from advice, ideas, and information about tigers and tiger-friendly infrastructure development from staff at the World Bank, and from several institutions that promote tiger and biodiversity conservation throughout the world.
The collapse of the Soviet Union gave rise to a vast archipelago of unclaimed man-made objects and land in Russia and beyond. Thousands upon thousands of roads, bridges, water pipes, gas pipes, power grids, cemeteries, farmland, and more have passed from state hands to no one in the last 26 years. These assets aren’t just lying around. They’re being used.
This paper discusses the economic implications of the preferential trade agreements that New Zealand is currently negotiating, using a computable general equilibrium modelling framework. The New Zealand dairy industry is a particular focus in the results, which come from the GTAP model produced by Purdue University.
The paper provides an overview of the institutional arrangements on the micro level that haveevolved in the agro-food sector of Kazakhstan in the course of transition. Emphasis is laid onmore complex arrangements like "agroholdings" and "clusters", hitherto mostly unknown in theagro-food sectors of established market economies. It is shown that "agroholdings" are concentratedmainly in the northern part of Kazakhstan and to a large extent in the grain sector, whilein the south a scattered small scale (individual) farm structure has emerged.
Sigificant dependence from climate and anthropogenic influences characterize ecological systems of Kazakhstan. As result of the geographical location of the republic and ecological situation vegetative degradation sites exist throughout the territory of Kazakhstan. The major process of desertification takes place in the arid and semi-arid areas. To allocate spots of stable degradation of vegetation, the transition zone was first identified. Productivity of vegetation in transfer zone is slightly dependent on climate conditions.