Land and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Goal 1: No poverty
Target 1.4: By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

Agenda 2030 makes it possible for countries to monitor the proportion of the total adult population with secure tenure rights to land. This indicator focuses on two components of tenure security that work to advance the concept of the continuum of tenure rights:

  1. The proportion of the adult population with documented tenure rights that are legally recognized by governments.
  2. The proportion of the adult population who perceive their tenure rights as legally secure, regardless of whether these rights are documented.

Legal documentation goes beyond land ownership by title deed and includes other legally enforceable documentation of user rights. For this component, National Statistical Offices (NSOs) will use administrative data from government registries and cadaster systems.

Security of tenure is the certainty that a person’s rights to land will be recognized by others and protected in cases of specific challenges. People with insecure tenure face the risk that their rights to land will be threatened by competing claims, and even lost as a result of eviction.

Measuring perception of tenure security entails capturing the extent to which individuals, households and communities perceive their tenure as secure and measuring their fears of threats to their land rights. Data on perception of tenure security will be collected through national population surveys (survey data). In addition to informal tenure rights holders, landholders with legally documented land rights may still feel that their land rights are vulnerable to infringement by outsiders.

Indicator 1.4.2 covers both rural and urban tenure. Indicator 1.4.2 is classified by the Inter-agency and Expert Group on the Sustainable Development Goals (IAEG-SDGs) as Tier III. This means the indicator’s conceptual clarity and the methodology for monitoring the indicator is currently being developed, and the indicator’s baseline data is being compiled.

GLII and the Global Donor Working Group on Land are supporting the efforts of the custodian agencies to elevate indicator 1.4.2 to Tier II status at the IAEG-SDGs meeting in November 2017. UNSD has announced that the 6th Meeting of the IAEG-SDGs will take place in Manama, Bahrain from 11-14 November 2017. Custodian agencies are expected to submit their request for reclassification including key documents in support of their request by October 2, 2017.

The ultimate goal of the custodian agencies and the land community at large is to achieve a Tier I status by end of 2018, when most countries will be able to report on this indicator on a regular basis.       

Selected indicators on the Land Portal

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

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Other related indicators

This indicator expresses the percentage of total respondents feeling "secure".

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - not formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Population living in slums is the proportion of the urban population living in slum households.

This indicator expresses the percentage of respondents who personally own their homes -- rural residents only -- with informal documentation only.

This indicator expresses the percentage of respondents who personally own their homes -- urban residents only -- with informal documentation only.

Indicator Min-Max
Number of years

Obs missing
Min / Max

Indicator details

Status
Tier 3

Internationally established methodology or standards is not yet available for the indicator, but methodology/standards are being (or will be) developed or tested.

Key dates

Experts reach consensus on measuring Indicator 1.4.2.

13 June 2017

Experts agree on a set of household survey questions that will be included in the global and national-level surveys and censuses to measure how secure peoples’ land and property rights are.

IAEG-SDG recommends deleting Target 1.4

28 October 2015

Global Donor Working Group on Land (GDWGL) confronts IAEG-SDG recommendation to delete Target 1.4.

https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/meetings/iaeg-sdgs-meeting-02

3rd Expert Group Meeting: Using Administrative Data to Monitor SDG land

6 July 2017 to 7 July 2017

Particularly, the objectives of this EGM were to agree on the methodology to monitor indicator 1.4.2 pertaining to legally documented rights using administrative data and to assess availability of existing data and explore ways of institutionalizing reporting at country and regional level.