The indicator monitors legal reforms that give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land. This indicator proposes that progress towards the SDG target will be determined by the extent to which countries have incorporated into their legal framework the following 6 proxies based on internationally recognized standards, particularly from Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure (VGGT) and the International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW):
- Mandatory joint registration, or economic incentives for joint registration.
- Spouse or partner consent for land transactions.
- Equal rights for sons and daughters to inherit and for surviving spouse to receive an inheritance share.
- Budgetary commitments to strengthen equal rights for women regarding ownership and/or control of land.
- If customary land tenure is recognized in the legal and policy framework, women’s land rights are protected.
- Quotas for women's participation in land administration and management institutions.
SDG indicator 5.a.2 currently remains at Tier III status (the lowest Tier) because the conceptual clarity is being developed and baseline data is being compiled.
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