Zambia

Zambia has a bifurcated land tenure system which results from a legacy of colonial land administration [1][2]. Under the British governor in 1928, Zambian land was divided into crown land and reserve native land [3][4]. Later in 1947 the Native Trust Order was passed which gave birth to trust land [4]. Crown land made up 6 percent of the country, while native and trust land both totalled up to 94 percent [1]. After independence, crown land was converted to state land. Reserve native and trust land remained as such until the 1995 Land Act at which point these tenure types began being labeled as "customary" land [4]. The Land Acquisition Act of 1970 inspired the ‘zambianisation’ (nationalisation) program, which sealed the deal of the 1975 Land (Conversion of Titles) Act that halted freehold tenure system in Zambia [4]. All land in Zambia has since then been vested in the President, who holds it in perpetuity on behalf of the Zambian people [3].

The Lands Act 1995 allowed for conversion of customary land into leasehold titles, thereby creating land markets and causing a surge in land transactions in the country [5]. Consequently, through a Presidential Decree passed in 2002, it became possible to establish farm blocks on customary land in nine provinces. Currently, there are major issues plaguing land governance in Zambia, including cases of uncontrolled and ungoverned customary land allocations [6], corruption in urban land allocation, and political cadreism in land allocation in both urban and peri-urban and rural areas [7]. Exogenous factors such as those underpinning large scale land acquisition (LSLAs) and the evolution of customary practices in response to socio-economic national dynamics put pressure on land and related resources. This compromises management regimes of customary land in the country. Land-based investments, such as the US$8billion Smart Resort City by Sirpryze Continental Zambia Limited planned on over 40,000ha in Senior Chief Kalasa Mukoso’s chiefdom in Luapula province [8], continue to pose threat on local communities. These investments also threaten local enterprising individuals such as John Mulenga [9] who has been working hard to build an agri-business that has been hailed by the Zambia National Farmers Union.           

 

Indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Forest land administered by governments: This category includes all forest land that is legally claimed as exclusively belonging to the state.

Measurement unit
Million ha

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Estimate of the percent of total Indigenous and Community Lands - formally recognised by the State - as a percentage of the country's total land area.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Share (%) of Forest Land with respect to the Total Land Area.

Measurement unit
Percentage

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It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

Photo Courtesy of Jeremy Green
27 November 2017
Kenya
Zambia
South Africa

Dynamic country portfolios combine detailed narratives with Linked Open Data to provide comprehensive overviews of land governance systems

16 November 2017
Zambia

Some commercial farmers in Zambia's have acquired thousands of hectares while ignoring laws meant to prevent forced evictions, writes Juliana Nnoko-Mewanu from Human Rights Watch

30 October 2017
Zambia

Land empowerment for women is cardinal in the acceleration of development at community and national level. The picture may not look so encouraging in Zambia with regards to women making strides in accessing land. And even the very few women who have access to land are utilising it to full capacity. One such woman is 27-year old graduate Tamara Kaunda who is a shining example of women in leadership who can inspire others.

13 September 2017
Zambia

Lusaka - When Zambian Lands Minister Judith Kapijimpanga announced recently that government had directed local authorities to intensify land allocation to women with immediate effect, there was general approval.

When she urged the usually truculent traditional rulers to encourage women to own land of which 90 percent was under-utilised, the women's movements said they had scored a victory.

But not everyone is optimistic. The Zambia National Land Alliance, a non-governmental organisation reviewing the land policy, says all this sounds well, but will be a long time coming.

Latest Blog

The Sugar Rush in South Africa - land grabs, land rights, human rights, agriculture
Southern Africa
Malawi
Mozambique
Sub-Saharan Africa
Swaziland
Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe

By Ian Scoones, Professorial Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, and the Director of the ESRC STEPS Centre at Sussex

The expansion of sugar production in southern Africa has been dramatic. From its early beginnings in Natal to the huge commercial estates across the region established during the colonial era, new investments are being planned. The land rush in southern Africa is often a sugar rush, with the ‘white gold’ promising riches to governments, local elites and large corporates alike.

Debate

Customary Land Recognition: Zambian Approach to Documentation and Administration
Coming soon
15 January 2018 to 6 February 2018
Facilitators
Andrew Chilombo
mattsommerville
Global
Zambia

USAID’s Tenure and Global Climate Change Program will facilitate a dialogue on experiences of documenting household and community-level customary rights in Zambia. The dialogue will bring together the perspectives of government, traditional leaders, practitioners, civil society, and academics to consider how customary land documentation can contribute to national development goals and increased service delivery in rural and peri-urban areas.

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 800
Journal Articles & Books
December 2017
Malawi
Mozambique
Zambia
Africa
Southern Africa

In developing regions with high levels of poverty and a dependence on climate sensitive agriculture, studies focusing on climate change adaptation, planning, and policy processes, have gained relative importance over the years. This study assesses the impact of farmer perceptions regarding climate change on the use of sustainable agricultural practices as an adaptation strategy in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa.

Assessment of land governance
Journal Articles & Books
August 2017
Zambia

The purpose of the research is to assess the land governance system in preventing state land conflicts in Zambia. In order to obtain insights about the actual realities on the ground, based on a case study strategy (i.e. Lusaka District has a study area), the research examined the present status of state land governance system, and investigated the efficiency of the present state land governance system in preventing state land conflicts.

7NDP
Legislation & Policies
June 2017
Zambia

Zambia remains committed to the socio-economic development planning of the country as reflected by the return to development planning in 2005. The Seventh National Development Plan (7NDP) for the period 2017- 2021 is the successor to the Revised Sixth National Development Plan, 2013-2016 (R-SNDP) following its expiry in December 2016. The Plan, like the three national development plans (NDPs) that preceded it, is aimed at attaining the long-term objectives as outlined in the Vision 2030 of becoming a “prosperous middle-income country by 2030”.

land grabbing
Training Resources & Tools
May 2017
Zambia

Media reports over the years have increasingly used the term “land grabbing:”

- Post Newspaper, 29th August 2000 - MMD cadres grabbing land in Kabangwe and Chazanga area of Chieftainess Mungule.
-Post Newspaper, April 15, 2010 - MMD cadres led by the Lusaka Provincial Chairman grabbing land from Ngombe resident

-Times of Zambia, 29th November 2002 - investors in tobacco farming grabbing land from poor villagers in Chipata, Kasenengwa and Chipangali constituencies in Eastern Province.

SLE_
Reports & Research
March 2017
Africa
Zambia

Despite extensive research into rural development in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about structural transformation1 in rural areas on the continent. Zambia was chosen as one of three case study countries2 in order to identify and to analyse rural transformation processes and their main influencing forces aiming at defining strategies and measures to influence such processes towards social inclusiveness and environmental sustainability until 2030.
Zambia shows a persisting copper-dependent mono-structure with selective transformation processes