Tanzania

Land has played a critical role in Tanzania’s development. Current land tenure frameworks, issues and conflicts in the country have historical roots dating back to the pre-colonial period. The periods of German and British rule were also formative in establishing current land sector rules and challenges, as has been the post-independence period. During the pre-colonial period, all land was owned communally and all members of the community had equal access [1]. When the Tanganyika [2] was under German Colonial rule (1891-1919), there were three types of land tenure: freehold titles created out of conveyance, leasehold granted by the emperor and customary tenure for natives. When the British took over (1919-1961), they recognized existing German laws and put in place new land laws such as the Land Ordinance of 1923. After independence, freehold titles were converted into government leases and later rights of occupancy [3].

Land in Tanzania is currently held in three forms: granted rights of occupancy (for general land), customary rights of occupancy (for village land) and reserved land (for conservation and other areas). The enactment of the Land Act and the Village Land Act in 1999 created two types of titles: customary rights of occupancy and granted rights of occupancy. These rights were given equal status, unlike during the colonial period when customary tenure was inferior [4] to other types of land rights. Several amendments to the Land Act were enacted, including a major amendment in 2004 on mortgage and land markets and a more recent amendment passed in 2017,  which includes mandates of Export Processing Zone Authorities along with those of the Tanzania Investment Centre [5] [6]. More than 8 amendments have been made to the Land Act since it became operational in 2001. Currently the government is in the process of reviewing the National Land Policy [7].

The Draft National Land Policy 2016 highlights several major land issues associated with the delivery of cost-effective and accountable land administration services, including:

  1. a lack of dedicated funding (or, limited cost recovery/revenue streams);
  2. a lack of trained staff;
  3. a lack of required mapping/geospatial information; and
  4. a lack of a coordinated strategy to share information and provide services at scale.

Second, Tanzania suffers from problems related to the limited production of and communication about reliable geospatial information. Third, Tanzania has endured cross-cutting challenges that affect the land sector, including issues related to global climate change, gender, HIV/ AIDS, and governance.

Other pervasive land issues include land use conflicts, conflicts between farmers and pastoralists, conflicts between small scale producers and large scale land-based investors, lack of strong constitutional recognition and protection of land rights [8], delays in village land use planning, and land compensation. For example, the government recently decided to acquire 1500 acres of land from villagers for the Ngorongoro conservation area, sparking protests from the villagers [9]. Also,  villagers in the Bagamoyo District are demanding compensation from Agro – Eco energy Company, even though the villagers did not succeed in court [10]. Agro- Eco Energy’s project was later reported as cancelled by the government of Tanzania due to environmental concerns [11].

 

Indicators

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

    Media

    Latest News

    7 November 2017
    Tanzania

    Members of the Samburu community who were living on a disputed land previously owned by retired President Daniel Moi have been slapped with a Sh11.8 million invoice by a Nairobi-based law firm.

    Kaplan and Stratton Advocates demanded the money after an eight-year court battle in a case in which 248 members of the community sued the retired President for transferring 17,105 acres of their ancestral land in Laikipia North to the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS).

    CASE DISMISSED

    28 August 2017
    Tanzania

    ROME, Aug 28 2017 (IPS) - Indigenous Maasai people in Loliondo region,Tanzania have been facing new cases of forced evictions and human rights violations, a major international organisation supporting indigenous peoples’ struggle for human rights and self-determination warned.

    maasai tanzania eviction
    28 August 2017
    Tanzania

    ROME, Aug 28 2017 (IPS) - Indigenous Maasai people in Loliondo region,Tanzania have been facing new cases of forced evictions and human rights violations, a major international organisation supporting indigenous peoples’ struggle for human rights and self-determination warned.

    22 August 2017
    Tanzania

     

    Thousands of pastoralists in northern Ngorongoro district made homeless as homes torched to protect wild game

    DAR ES SALAAM, Tanzania

    Simat Rotiken and his family are braving cold nights huddled under a tree after their homestead was burned down in a scheme to protect a disputed wildlife corridor.

    They were driven from their pastures by security forces in a government policy aimed at securing the Loliondo Game Controlled Area next to the Serengeti National Park.

    Latest Blog

    This map draws on Chinese infrastructure project location data from AidData and forest cover loss data from Hansen et al. (2013).
    Cambodia
    China
    Tanzania

    Conservationists and environmental advocacy groups have warned that the nature, pace and scale of Chinese-funded infrastructure projects in the developing world may lead to unintended environmental consequences, especially in so-called “ecological hotspots.” Until now, there has been no systematic, large-scale evidence that confronts the causal claim that Chinese-funded development projects have

    Latest Events

    10 August 2017 to 11 August 2017

    Location

    Julius Nyerere Convention Centre Dar es Salaam
    Tanzania
    TZ
    Tanzania

    The Institution of Surveyors of Tanzania (IST), The Tanzanian Institution of Valuers & Estate Surveyors (TIVEA)

    in collaboration with The Commonwealth Association of Surveying & Land Economy (CASLE)

    invite you to:- ‘An International Conference’

    31 May 2017 to 1 June 2017

    Location

    New America
    740 15th St NW #900
    20005 Washington , District Of Columbia
    United States
    District Of Columbia US
    Global
    Mozambique
    Tanzania
    South Africa
    Jamaica
    Canada
    Kyrgyzstan
    Australia

     

     

     

    24 May 2017

    Location

    Online
    United States
    US
    Tanzania

     

     

     

    Debate

    Closed
    22 September 2017 to 1 October 2017
    Facilitators
    Fiona Flintan
    Babatunde Ajao
    Kenya
    Tanzania
    Nigeria

    The PROCASUR Corporation in Africa in collaboration with the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) have partnered with the International Land Coalition, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Land Portal Foundation and Resource Conflict Institute (RECONCILE) to present the Learning Initiative: Innovative practices and tools to reduce land use conflicts between farmers and livestock keepers, taking place in Kenya and Tanzania, between the 22nd September and 1st October 2017 under the framework of the PROCASUR-IFAD Programme “Strengthening Capacities and tools

    Closed
    5 June 2017 to 16 June 2017
    Facilitators
    Godfrey Massay
    Lukasz Czerwinski
    Global
    Tanzania

    Organizations

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 791
    Responsible Investments in Land Perspectives from Tanzania and Globally
    Reports & Research
    September 2017
    Global
    Tanzania

    Landesa (strengthening land rights for the world’s poorest people) and Land Portal co‑facilitated the online dialogue on “Responsible investments in land: perspective from Tanzania and globally” from June 5 -16, 2017.

    For details on the dialogue follow this link.

    Reports & Research
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    August 2017
    Tanzania
    Africa

    This paper investigates the presence of endogenous peer effects in the adoption of formal property rights. Using data from a unique land titling experiment held in an unplanned settlement in Dar es Salaam, the analysis finds a strong, positive impact of neighbor adoption on the household's choice to purchase a land title. The paper also shows that this relationship holds in a separate, identical experiment held a year later in a nearby community, as well as in administrative data for more than 160,000 land parcels in the same city.

    Can Tanzania feed itself by 2050?: Estimating cereal self-sufficiency to 2050 cover image
    Reports & Research
    May 2017
    Tanzania

    Producing adequate food to meet global demand by 2050 is widely recognized as a major challenge, particularly for Africa south of the Sahara, including Tanzania (Godfray et al. 2010; Alexandratos and Bruinsma 2012; van Ittersum et al. 2016). Increased price volatility of major food crops (Koning et al. 2008; Lagi et al. 2011) and an abrupt surge in land area devoted to crop production in recent years (Grassini et al. 2013) reflect the powerful forces underpinning this challenge.

    Cover photo
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    May 2017
    Tanzania

    In this communiqué, the undersigned Non-State Actors (civil society, pastoralist, research, private, farmers’ unions and other stakeholders) champion a call to action and outline recommendations on livestock policy advocacy strategies that take into consideration the unique conditions and opportunities of the livestock sector development in Tanzania

    Cover photo
    Journal Articles & Books
    May 2017
    Tanzania

    Land-use conflict is not a new phenomenon for pastoralists  and farmers in Tanzania with murders, the killing of livestock and the loss of property as  a  consequence of  this  conflict  featuring   in  the  news  for  many years  now.  Various actors,  including civil society organisations, have tried  to  address  farmer–pastoralist conflict through  mass  education programmes, land-use planning, policy reforms and  the development of community institutions. However, these efforts have not succeeded in the conflict.

    Prindex cover image
    Reports & Research
    March 2017
    Egypt
    Tanzania
    Nigeria
    Brazil
    Colombia
    Peru
    Indonesia
    Greece

    This report presents results from nationally representative surveys with 1,000 residents aged 15 and older in eight countries — Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Nigeria, Peru and Tanzania — and with 3,000 residents in India. Each survey attained comprehensive coverage of both urban and rural areas of the country using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.1 Standardized interviewer and supervisor training, as well as robust validation of data collection/data entry, help to ensure rigorous quality standards.