Madagascar is a country with an abundance of natural resources that have attracted an increasing number of investments and tourists. The economy of the country is largely dependent on agriculture, which also provides the livelihood for more than 60% of the population. However, the economic growth of the country slowed down after de coup d’etat of 2009, which was in part the consequence of the government’s decision to grant or lease agricultural land to a South Korea company.

Madagascar has both a formal land tenure system and a community-based customary land tenure system. The Land Law of 2005 classifies land as state or private, establishes land tenure types and provides procedures for land registration. The Law No. 2006-031 sets the juridical regime for untitled private property and it established the procedures for individuals and groups to obtain certificates in order to recognize their rights from the local land administration offices.

Land disputes generally involve individuals and families over land ownership and individuals and the state over the control of land and natural resources, which are often the consequence of the co-existence of a formal and customary land tenure system. Conflicts are generally resolved within the communities thanks to clearly defined land tenure rules and process. However, it is possible that the two systems overlap regarding issues related to the acquisition and ownership of land. 

Source of the narrative

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


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Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    4 September 2017

    The project is part of a cross country pilot being implemented by the LPI with support from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the European Union (EU)

    madagascar rice plantation
    22 August 2017

    (Ecofin Agency) - In an open letter sent to the president of Madagascar on August 17, the Tany group exposed its concerns about land grabbing by foreign investors in the country. For the civil society group, whose objective “is to support the development of Malagasy farmers and citizens and defend their lands and natural resources”, it is urgent to boost land tenure and establish a stricter framework for land related transactions.

    madagascar agriculture
    21 August 2017

    (Ecofin Agency) - Launched in 2005 with a financial support from the World Bank, Madagascar’s land reform has yielded satisfying results, the Bretton Woods institution said on its website.

    Many other countries could follow Madagascar’s example. Actually, various African nations are already showing interest in the Malagasy land reform as it tackles key challenges and provide technical and legal solutions which are reliable and accessible,” explains André Teyssier, land specialist at the World Bank.

    madagascar rice fields
    2 August 2017

      In spite of appearances, the piece of paper that Rakotoarimanana, 79 years of age, proudly clutches in his hand is very valuable. He has been waiting five years for this moment. He left home this morning at 6 a.m. to walk seven kilometers to the rural commune of Andriambilany to collect his land certificate. In front of the town hall in Andriambilany, located in the district of Ambatolampy in the Vakinankaratra region, a long line had already formed.  Many were hoping to receive their land certificates that Thursday morning. Rakotoarimanana is the first to be called and he steps up to the commune’s land tenure office window. He confirms his name in the register, enters his signature, and displays the land certificate that he has just been given for one of his five parcels of land. A victory to be savored.



      Displaying 1 - 6 of 302
      Journal Articles & Books
      March 2017
      Ivory Coast

      Date: juin 2017

      Source: Foncier & Développement 

      Ce dossier sur le renouvellement des formes et des enjeux de l’accès à la terre agricole au Sud rassemble des contributions présentées lors du colloque SFER « Le foncier agricole : usages, tensions et régulations », qui s’est tenu à Lyon les 11 et 12 juin 2014.

      Reports & Research
      March 2017
      Democratic Republic of the Congo
      Papua New Guinea

      Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

      Reports & Research
      Training Resources & Tools
      December 2016

      Even though a large majority of poor households are engaged in agriculture, per capita productivity and real levels of sectoral growth remain low in Madagascar. Approximately 80 percent of the population are engaged in agriculture, which provides the main source of income for households, albeit at subsistence levels. Cultivation practices are based on extensification strategies with implications for Madagascar’s fragile natural resource base, rather than improving the productivity of existing farms and land use.

      Journal Articles & Books
      December 2016

      The article discusses the relationship between conceptions of forest values among local people in Madagascar and human capabilities. According to Amartya Sen's capability approach, capabilities include both the means of maintaining a livelihood and intangible elements that are necessary to achieve overall well-being. In a qualitative case study in Madagascar's Mananara-Nord and Sahamalaza Biosphere Reserves, we investigated local peoples’ conceptions of forest values.

      Journal Articles & Books
      December 2016

      In order to investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of the purely grazing-based livestock husbandry system in southwestern Madagascar, individual animals from 12 cattle and 12 goat herds that were equally distributed across four villages were fitted with GPS tracking collars and their behaviour during pasturing was directly observed to identify seasonal variations in land use and movement patterns along the regional altitude and vegetation gradient.