Indonesia

Indonesian development policies have for the past several decades focused on rapid economic growth, without a targeted strategy to benefit the least powerful groups, such as landless and land-poor agricultural laborers in the densely populated agricultural districts and the equally poor forest-dwelling communities in the less populated islands. Indonesia’s legal and regulatory framework governing land is flawed and in need of a comprehensive overhaul. Throughout the country, the land rights of unregistered owners are insecure, women’s rights to marital property are generally not registered, and registration of all rights is unnecessarily expensive. A deforestation rate of 2% per annum is a significant ongoing threat which imposes especially high costs on traditional adat communities that depend upon forest resources for their livelihood. Indonesia’s legal framework fails to provide an environment conducive to investment and economic growth that would open doors of opportunity for the poor, women and traditional communities.

At least five land and natural resource property-rights issues should be addressed for the benefits of growth to be more widely shared and to increase environmental sustainability. First, ambiguities between formal and customary law are interpreted by governments, officials and citizens in ways that undermine land rights, leading to a growth in land disputes and conflicts which must be addressed. Second, a registration system that is overly complex, inefficient and ambiguous has weakened security of tenure and the development of a functioning land market. Third, land conversions driven by economic development are threatening Indonesia’s vital forest resources and hold implications at the global, national and local levels, particularly related to climate change. Fourth, urban growth has not been accompanied by sufficient investments in housing and urban services despite continuing decentralization. Fifth, the problem of rural landlessness has limited the economic options, basic livelihood strategies and food security of millions of families.

The current era of decentralization of central government functions could be an opportune time to work with district (kabupaten) governments on various land tenure and natural resource property issues. The National Land Agency (BPN) has long resisted reforms and does not appear likely to embrace them, while some district governments may be more amenable to reforms that they see as responsive to the needs of their communities. This could also be an opportune time to engage with civil-society organizations that have an interest in agrarian, natural resource and legal aid matters, but which may not have sufficient technical capacity to design and promote specific legislative reforms.

Indicators

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    Legend
    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

    Media

    Latest News

    14 November 2017
    Indonesia
    • Indonesian President Joko Widodo last month gave several indigenous communities back the land rights to the forests they have called home for generations.
    • The total amount of customary forests relinquished to local groups under this initiative remains far short of what the government has promised, and looks unlikely to be fulfilled before the next presidential election in 2019.
    • At a recent conference in Jakarta, a senior government official said the president would sign a decree to help more communities secure rights.
    4 September 2017
    Indonesia

    A small community on the island of Sumatra is at the heart of a battle for traditional territories that could finally resolve the muddled and exploitative system of laws governing land ownership in Indonesia

     

    31 August 2017
    Indonesia

    As a young man, Abdon Nabadan loved nature-tripping—climbing mountains and trekking forests.

    Little did he know that his love of nature would lead him to reconnect to his ethnic roots and become one of Indonesia’s leading advocates of the rights of indigenous peoples (IPs), locally known as the masyarakat adat.

    indonesia palm oil industries land conflict
    9 August 2017
    Indonesia

    Unclear regulations on land ownership have led to overlapping claims, with some indigenous people occupying the concession areas of palm oil companies

    JAKARTA (Reuters) - Indonesian security companies have seen a surge in demand for guards to protect palm oil plantations from fruit thieves and land grabbers, amid a rebound in prices of the commodity used to churn out everything from cooking oil to soap.

    Latest Blog

    Goats getting ready for milking in the Khovd Province of Mongolia. Photo credit: © Eddie Game / The Nature Conservancy
    Global
    Mongolia
    Indonesia
    Australia

     

    By Yuta Masuda and Brian E. Robinson

    I’m sitting in a Mongolian yurt, listening to and trying to emulate Bataa’s* songs about love for the grasslands and the wide, treeless plains of the Mongolian Plateau. Our host sings with consuming passion. I might have brushed his enthusiasm off as a show two weeks ago. But after living and working in these grasslands, the feeling of freedom that comes from unobstructed, far-off distant horizon is infectious.

    Global
    Africa
    Kenya
    Uganda
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Colombia
    Peru
    Asia
    Indonesia
    Nepal

    The recent World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, held this past March in Washington D.C., provided a unique opportunity to reflect on collective land tenure reforms not only from a research point of view, but also from that of governments.

    Organizations

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 650
    Reports & Research
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    December 2017
    Indonesia
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    Since the early 1990s, the industrial timber plantation (Hutan Tanaman Industri - HTI) scheme has been intended to serve as a major source of timber to meet domestic and export demand. The need to meet a large gap between legal wood supply and demand for forests products has been the recent years as high as 50 million

    Peer-reviewed publication
    March 2017
    Indonesia

    Forest lands in Indonesia are classified as state lands and subject to management under agreements allocated by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. There has been a long-standing tension between the ministry and local communities who argue that they have traditionally managed large areas of forest and should be allowed to continue to do so. A series of recent legal and administrative decisions are now paving the way for the allocation of forests to local communities.

    Prindex cover image
    Reports & Research
    March 2017
    Egypt
    Tanzania
    Nigeria
    Brazil
    Colombia
    Peru
    Indonesia
    Greece

    This report presents results from nationally representative surveys with 1,000 residents aged 15 and older in eight countries — Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Nigeria, Peru and Tanzania — and with 3,000 residents in India. Each survey attained comprehensive coverage of both urban and rural areas of the country using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.1 Standardized interviewer and supervisor training, as well as robust validation of data collection/data entry, help to ensure rigorous quality standards. 

    Reports & Research
    March 2017
    Brazil
    Cambodia
    Canada
    Colombia
    Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Indonesia
    Liberia
    Madagascar
    Malaysia
    Mexico
    Myanmar
    Papua New Guinea
    Peru
    Russia

    Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

    Reports & Research
    February 2017
    Brazil
    China
    Colombia
    Democratic Republic of the Congo
    India
    Indonesia
    Kenya
    Peru
    Senegal

    Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

    Reports & Research
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    January 2017
    Indonesia
    Eastern Asia
    Oceania

    A lack of access to finance has been one of the biggest impediments to the development and growth of the small-scale business sector in Indonesia. While micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) account for almost all employment in Indonesia (97 percent), the sector as a whole accounts for just about 57 percent of Gross National Product. Surveys suggest that one of the main constraints on the growth of the sector is a lack of access to finance, with almost half of Indonesian MSMEs citing access to finance as the top constraint to business growth.