Ghana

GHA

Ghana

Located in Western Africa, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Agriculture is a major driver of the economy, accounting for one-third of GDP, alongside gold and cocoa. Approximately 68% of Ghana’s land is used for agriculture and 15% is used as permanent natural pastures.

In 2003, Ghana launched a major land reform project aimed at improving land registration, institutional capacity building, land dispute resolution and the harmonization of statutory and customary systems governing land. Under the country’s mixed system of English common law and customary law, land is governed under overlapping customary and formal land rights regimes. The vast majority of land is held informally under customary tenure, while approximately 20% of land in Ghana is officially owned by the state. In recent years, tensions and conflicts over land have been exacerbated by the expansion of mining and bio fuel cultivation. While women have legal rights to own and inherit property, in practice under customary law their rights are greatly restricted and they themselves do not own land.

Main issues: tensions between customary and formal land rights regimes; pastoralists’ rights; women’s land rights; legal protections associated with compulsory land acquisitions; insecurity of rural people’s land rights.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Indicators

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Infographics

Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

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    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

    Media

    Latest News

    accra ghana road
    3 August 2017
    Ghana

    The President of Ghana Institutions of Surveyors (GhIS), Mr. Edwin Addo-Tawiah has said, it is time surveyors take strategic decisions for the development of the country, considering the United Nations Development Goal (UNDG) which has been estimated that, 60% of Africans would be living in the urban areas by 2020.

    According to him, there is therefore, the need for land professionals to equip themselves in terms of decision making in developmental projects.

    3 August 2017
    Ghana

    Accra, Aug 2, GNA – A two-day workshop has ended in Accra with a call on Queen Mothers to serve as champions in women’s quest to access and control land in their communities.

    The workshop, organised by the Ghana Integrity Initiative (GII), the National chapter of Transparency was to forge a partnership between civil society and Queen Mothers in promoting women land rights and seek to find solutions and promote gender equity, thus forging closer ties between the citizens and traditional authorities.

    26 May 2017
    Africa
    Kenya
    Zambia
    Ghana

    Colonialism brought large-scale farming to Africa, promising modernisation and jobs – but often dispossessing people and exploiting workers. Now, after several decades of independence, and with investor interest growing, African governments are once again promoting large plantations and estates. But the new corporate interest in African agriculture has been criticised as a “land grab”.

    Latest Blog

    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Ghana

    By Marian Amissah-Ocran

    First, Maame Kraba was diagnosed with HIV. Shortly thereafter, her husband died of the disease. For Maame, a young mother of two children living in Western Region, Ghana, her husband’s death marked an abrupt change in her family’s circumstances, one that would put her rights to land in jeopardy.

    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Western Africa
    Ghana

    In Ghana, land is an indispensable asset. It’s a source of livelihood and social identity, and men and women should have equal opportunities to benefit from it. But when entrenched patriarchy tips the power scales, and corruption reinforces cultural norms, the impact on women can be devastating.

    A recent survey reveals that one in three Ghanaians have been asked to pay a bribe for land-related services in recent years. The study was done by the Ghana Integrity Initiative, the local chapter of Transparency International in Ghana.

    Partners

    Library

    Displaying 1 - 6 of 570
    Reports & Research
    June 2017

    A recent surge in agribusiness plantation deals has increased pressures on land in many low- and middle-income countries. Rural people have mobilised to protect their rights, seek better terms or oppose the deals altogether. Since 2014, an initiative in Cameroon, Ghana and Senegal has worked to help people harness the law in order to have greater control over decisions that affect them – a process commonly referred to as legal empowerment. 

    Understanding changing land access and use by the rural poor in Ghana cover image
    Journal Articles & Books
    May 2017

    In Ghana 70 per cent of the population are smallholder farmers who depend on the land for their basic needs. Growing competition for this resource is having significant impacts on rural livelihoods and governance as land changes hands. This study highlights the key drivers of pressure on rural land and their communities, such as population growth, urbanisation and acquisition of land by new actors, including government and business.

    Ghanaian cocoa farmer establishing specially-approved farm boundary pillars under the guidance of a Landmapp field agent (the pillar will be mounted with cement after mapping). Courtesy: Landmapp (www.landmapp.net)
    Reports & Research
    April 2017

    The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), with support from the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF) the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), performed the Ghana Land Tenure Baseline Survey, the first of its kind survey of tenure rights among cocoa farmers in Ghana. CRIG surveyed almost 1,800 cocoa farmers operating 3,900 cocoa plots regarding various land tenure issues within customary sharecropping arrangements and on owner-managed land. This report describes the findings from the Survey.

    Access to farmland gets quick and dirty in sub-Saharan Africa cover image
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    January 2017

    Who can access and use the land? The answer to this age-old question is changing fast in many parts of rural Africa. Land that used to be allocated within the community by chiefs is now increasingly changing hands in more diverse ways. The wealthy and well-connected within the community or from further afield are frequently able to override local statutory or customary land rights, dispossessing the previous occupants or forcing them to divide their already small plots of land.

    Journal Articles & Books
    December 2016

    In this article, the attempt is made to address regime interaction in environmental governance by emphasising human livelihood action as a causal factor in this interaction. The paper elucidates how governing human behaviour on environmental resources is a process of interaction between different environmental governance regimes.