Democratic Republic of the Congo


Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo has experienced a long war that has killed 3.5 million people and devastated the country. After the end of the conflict in 1997, the new government began rebuilding administrative systems and set new standards for good governance.  Congo’s population is composed of several ethnic groups, most of which are of Bantu origin. More than half of the population is rural, with agriculture accounting for 41% of the total GDP.

The Constitution of 2005 establishes that every person has right to enjoy the country’s natural resources and that the state is responsible for the equal distribution of these resources.  The General Property Law of 1973 gives the state the ownership of all land, also allowing for customary rights to regulate the use of unallocated land in rural areas. Despite the existence of land related legislation, customary law still governs a significant part of land in Congo.  The administration of land is assigned to traditional authorities, which usually cooperate with government officials.

Land disputes in the Congo are generally related to the control of land, the occupation of abandoned land and lack of known principles governing land tenure. Formal courts are entitled to resolve land related conflicts. However, these courts lack of financial means and basic human resources, and they also face interference from political and military leaders.  Traditional authorities may resolve land disputes, but they are weak in some rural areas and often they do not have the skills to deal with land issues in a post-conflict environment. 

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.


Indicators Year Value Unit Dataset Source Remove

Loading data ...

Compare countries


Loading data ...


Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF)

Please, select year and panels to show the info.

    • Very Good Practice
    • Good Practice
    • Weak Practice
    • Very Weak Practice
    • Missing Value

    Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure

    Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
    • Fully adopt
    • Partially adopt
    • Not adopted
    • Missing Value

    Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

    The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

    Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

    Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.


    Latest News

    2 July 2017
    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Traditionally, women in the DRC gained shares in property through marriage, not inheritance. Today few realize that this custom contradicts the law, which codifies women’s rights to inherit land. In the North Kivu province, one organization is spreading awareness of the law and helping to resolve inheritance disputes.  

    RUTSHURU, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO — When Salima Salumu’s mother died, she left a large plot of land for her children and ignited a conflict that is not unusual here in the North Kivu province.

    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Goma, 23 November 2016 – UN-Habitat, in close collaboration with the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, has launched a USD 12 million land programme that seeks to promote peace and stability.

    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Democratic Republic of Congo to disclose large-scale agricultural contracts

    In partnership with the Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, documents will be available via a new online repository

    Latest Blog

    In Rwanda, WfWI graduates have come together to form a Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA) to create their own source of credit and savings to help them grow their businesses and move out of extreme poverty.
    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Around the world, women in 155 countries face legal restrictions on the economic opportunities available to them, according to the recent World Bank Group's report Women, Business and the Law 2016, which highlights the challenges women face in the global economy and underscores the need for legal reform.

    Latest Events

    5 September 2016


    Hawaiʻi Convention Center, UNDP, Room 314
    1801 Kalākaua Av
    96815 Honolulu , Hawaii
    United States
    Hawaii US
    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    A presentation by the Rainforest Foundation UK and Réseau Ressources Naturelles (RRN).


    To be sustainable, nature conservation must also support the rights, livelihoods and cultures of local communities. International conservation organisations recognise this, but have these good intentions been reflected in efforts to protect Africa’s rainforests?



    Displaying 1 - 6 of 218
    Reports & Research
    March 2017

    Global demand for timber, agricultural commodities, and extractives is a significant driver of deforestation worldwide. Transparent land-concessions data for these large-scale commercial activities are essential to understand drivers of forest loss, monitor environmental impacts of ongoing activities, and ensure efficient and sustainable allocation of land.

    Reports & Research
    February 2017

    Amid the realities of major political turbulence, there was growing recognition in 2016 that the land rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are key to ensuring peace and prosperity, economic development, sound investment, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Despite equivocation by governments, a critical mass of influential investors and companies now recognize the market rationale for respecting community land rights.

    Policy Papers & Briefs
    Institutional & promotional materials
    December 2016

    Promoting a peaceful and lasting resolution to land conflicts in a protracted crisis context through a fair and environmentally sensitive approach.