Environment, as a cross-cutting issue, addresses global challenges of environmental impact related to land use, land management and land tenure, including the issues surrounding climate change and natural resource management.
Environmental and land tenure challenges include the following:
- landlessness that drives poor urban and rural people to occupy and misuse fragile ecosystems;
- tenure insecurity undermining investment incentives and leading to environmental mismanagement in urban as well as in rural areas;
- large scale land acquisitions and investments may lead to tenure insecurity of poor and vulnerable groups and environmental damages;
- encroachment in particularly vulnerable and valuable habitats;
- increasing threats in coastal areas due to sea water rise and severe weather risk;
- shortage of arable and liveable lands results to more disputes and conflicts;
- increasing tensions between land, land tenure arrangements and land use;
- increasing land fragmentation in densely populated areas;
- deforestation and forest degradation leading to carbon emissions and loss of biodiversity.