Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting eleven areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers.
The Government of Uzbekistan has adopted an important series of initiatives to create a market-based housing finance system, yet recognizes that there remains much work to be done. This note provides guidance on the themes that were discussed with authorities and industry participants during mission to Uzbekistan on November 6-16, 2006 and February 22 to March 2, 2007. The note is based on missions conducted in 2006 and 2007 by Britt Gwinner, FPDSF, and Michael Borish, a review of government documents, and a review of studies conducted by other multilateral institutions.
Agriculture in Uzbekistan is almost entirely dependent on irrigation.
Salinization of irrigated agricultural land threatens ecological sustainability and livelihoods of people. Salinization is especially severe in the dry lowlands world-wide and in Central Asia where large amounts of salts accumulated in the soil profile, originating from shallow saline groundwater (GW).
An intensive process of land deterioration of some regions in Uzbekistan including the Aral Sea basin has led to a significant increase in soil salinity levels and consequently to a considerable reduction of total fertile soil area, as these lands are of little use for plant growth. The area is estimated to be more than 1.4 million ha of seabed. As a result, there was an immediate need to cultivate new crops capable of stopping the movement of sands and the enlargement of saline soils.
In 2005 the Uzbek government accelerated the dissolution process of collective farms through full-scale land reform. As the central production unit, the collective enterprise was supplanted by a private, family-based enterprise. Simultaneously Water Users Associations (WUAs) were established that operate and maintain the irrigation and drainage infrastructure of the former collective farms. Though these land-cum-water reforms could in principle initiate enormous changes, there is still a strong continuity due to the state-regulated agricultural system.
Land use and crop production in the Khorezm region in western Uzbekistan, exemplarily for the irrigated low-lands of Central Asia, is adversely affected by the excessive, non-sustainable use of irrigation water on one hand, repeated droughts on the other hand, and by soil degradation by secondary salinization.
Irrigated agriculture is widespread in the Central Asian drylands and important for food security of the region. However irrigation practices based on rules made for cotton production on large units do not provide adequate guidance for the now widespread small farms that produce cotton wheat and rice. Excessive unsustainable water use is the consequence. Land and water resource management practices were analysed in 2006 for the irrigated area (approx. 1885 ha) of a water users' association (WUA) as a case study.
The paper examines agricultural production and productivity growth in two Central Asian countries – Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are characterized by a significant shift of resources from the traditional Soviet model of collective agriculture to more market-compliant individual and family farming. In both countries, the beginning of the policy-driven switch to family farming around 1997 coincided with the beginning of recovery in agriculture, namely resumption of agricultural growth after a phase of transition decline since 1991.