Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination.
Ecosystem services science has developed at a fast rate in Latin America, a region characterized by a high biological and cultural diversity, strong emphasis in foreign investment, and high socioeconomic inequities.
Co‐management (Co‐M), defined as the sharing of management tasks and responsibilities between governments and local users, is emerging as a powerful institutional arrangement to redress fisheries paradigm failures, yet long‐term assessments of its performance are lacking. A comparative analysis of five small‐scale Latin American shellfisheries was conducted to identify factors suggesting success and failure.
Policies play a pivotal role in determining land change. Uruguay has been subject to first a rise and then decline in plantations of exotic trees as a result of internal Uruguayan government policies, and a recent substantial increase in soybean cultivation that may be attributed to Argentinean policies. To properly assess the relationship between land change and changes in land-use policies, vegetation change for Uruguay from 2001 to 2009 was mapped using MODIS imagery.
Silvopastoral systems (SPSs) in Uruguay have been developed in the context of a recently formed plantation forestry sector. Beef cattle farmers have long been adopting forestry mostly as woodlots or SPSs. In spite of the potential complementary relationship between forestry and cattle husbandry, research in temperate regions is scarce. The objectives of this study were to identify constraints for the inclusion of forestry in cattle farms and to assess expansion potential for this land use. A survey was conducted on a sample of 104 landowners with cattle farms larger than 100 ha.
Liu, X., Burras, C. L., Kravchenko, Y. S., Duran, A., Huffman, T., Morras, H., Studdert, G., Zhang, X., Cruse, R. M. and Yuan, X. 2012. Overview of Mollisols in the world: Distribution, land use and management. Can. J. Soil Sci. 92: 383â402. Mollisols â a.k.a., Black Soils or Prairie Soils â make up about 916 million ha, which is 7% of the world's ice-free land surface. Their distribution strongly correlates with native prairie ecosystems, but is not limited to them. They are most prevalent in the mid-latitudes of North America, Eurasia, and South America.
Human activities are radically changing natural land cover and increasing the delivery of soil, organic compounds, nutrients, toxic agrochemicals and other contaminants to aquatic ecosystems. The eutrophication of streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and costal zones is one of the most important consequences of human activities. In this study we assessed the trophic status of 28 wadeable stream reaches of the Santa Lucía basin, an important economic region of Uruguay. We developed a Trophic State Index of Benthic Invertebrates (TSI-BI), the first of its kind for South American lotic systems.