This social assessment (SA) was conducted under the Fergana Valley Water Resources Management Project (FVWRMP), which is providing assistance to the Government of Tajikistan to address irrigation and drainage deficiencies in Eastern Sughd. The main SA objectives were to understand how prevailing structures of water provision, land reforms, and gender relations impact rural livelihoods; to analyze experiences in establishing inclusive Water Users Associations (WUAs); and to provide recommendations to FVWRMP with the aim of enhancing its programs.
Since independence in 1991, the Government of Tajikistan has embarked on a land reform program, which includes extensive farm restructuring. Given the demography of rural households in Tajikistan where the phenomenon of female-headed households is quite significant, women ‘s access to land and credit assumes special importance. To date, however, no thorough gender analysis of access to land and finance in Tajikistan has been conducted. As a result, there is insufficient gender disaggregated data to inform policy.
This project strengthened land rights by (1) assisting the Government of Tajikistan in developing land-related legislation (2) empowering farmers with information to assert their rights over land, and (3) supporting regional legal aid centers and rural land activists in educating farmers on their rights, providing mediation, and advocating on behalf of farmers’ interests in court.
The Land Reform Project in Tajikistan (LRPT) works with government stakeholders to reform policy and land legislation, provides legal assistance to farmers to improve legal aid, and builds capacity through training and outreach for lawyers, judges, and local government officials on land issues.
The Land Reform and Market Development Project project provided technical assistance for the Land Market Development and Tenure Reform in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The overall goal of this program was to strengthen the developing market economies by (a) facilitating the development of vibrant, modern agricultural markets and (b) by facilitating the creation and development of an urban land market.
This project aimed to pilot a mechanism for joint management of pasture land resources along the Kyrgyz-Tajik border, including by establishing a Joint Council for Community Management of Land as a reconciliation mechanism with Kyrgyz and Tajik members.
The paper examines agricultural production and productivity growth in two Central Asian countries – Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are characterized by a significant shift of resources from the traditional Soviet model of collective agriculture to more market-compliant individual and family farming. In both countries, the beginning of the policy-driven switch to family farming around 1997 coincided with the beginning of recovery in agriculture, namely resumption of agricultural growth after a phase of transition decline since 1991.
The Central Asian countries are particularly affected by the global climate change. The cultural and economic centers in this mostly arid region have to rely solely on the water resources provided by the rapidly melting glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alay mountains. By 2030, the available water resources will be 30 % lower than today while the water demand will increase by 30 %. The unsustainable land and water use leads to a water deficit and a deterioration of the water quality.
Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.
Tajikistan, with 93% of its surface area taken up by mountains and 65% of its labor forceemployed in agriculture, is judged to be highly vulnerable to risks, including climate changerisks and food insecurity risks. The article examines a set of land use policies and practices thatcan be used to mitigate the vulnerability of Tajikistan’s large rural population, primarily byincreasing family incomes. Empirical evidence from Tajikistan and other CIS countries suggeststhat families with more land and higher commercialization earn higher incomes and achievehigher well-being.