This paper analyzes the political and institutional factors which are behind the dramatic changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the transition countries in East Asia, Central Asia, and the rest of the former Soviet Union, and in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper explains why these changes have occurred and why there are large differences among transition countries in the extent and the nature of the remaining distortions.
Amid heightened global uncertainties, Russia is experiencing a bumpy recovery. Domestic demand is rising, but unemployment remains high, and credit and investment remain limited. The budget has benefited from higher oil prices, but fiscal consolidation remains important in the medium term. Crumbling infrastructure, especially in transport, could hamper the economy's competitiveness and longer-term growth prospects. The debt crisis in Western Europe sharpens the downside risks to global recovery and oil prices.
This report presents the results of extensive work of the smart green infrastructure task force commissioned by the World Bank under the Global Tiger Initiative (GTI). The report benefited from advice, ideas, and information about tigers and tiger-friendly infrastructure development from staff at the World Bank, and from several institutions that promote tiger and biodiversity conservation throughout the world.
The objectives of the study are to: a) increase understanding of the effects and effectiveness of the implementation of the local government reform launched in 2006; and b) assess the impact of a World Bank-supported intervention that aimed to enhance effectiveness of the reforms by increasing local capacity and local participation. In line with these objectives, the study assessed the perceived effects and effectiveness of the implementation of the local government reform in selected provinces.
Russia has seen even higher oil windfall in the past few months, which translates into likely fiscal surpluses this year and next. The government should not miss the opportunity provided by a large oil windfall to substantially improve its long-term fiscal position, further reduce inflation, and, therefore, ensure a strong basis for durable stability and healthy growth in the future. Rising domestic demand and credit activity are increasingly supporting solid growth.
The collapse of the Soviet Union gave rise to a vast archipelago of unclaimed man-made objects and land in Russia and beyond. Thousands upon thousands of roads, bridges, water pipes, gas pipes, power grids, cemeteries, farmland, and more have passed from state hands to no one in the last 26 years. These assets aren’t just lying around. They’re being used.
The aim of the research is to investigate technological process of growing of 9 promising soya cultivars, obtained from 5 originators, in dry steppe zone of Volga region (Saratov area) under irrigation. Experiment observations were done in 2012-2014 in accordance with standard techniques of experimental work and schedule of study. The experiment investigations were carried out through all elements of technological process.
The reform of the 90s led to the elimination of states monopoly of landownership and to the privatization of most agricultural lands. Within the small auxiliary sector of agricultural land the turnover arose in the early reform. But in the large agro-industrial sector, the turnover of lands received the necessary legal regulation only in 2003 (more than 10 years later than the mass privatization of these lands). For this type of turnover, a significant part of the regulatory mechanisms was borrowed from foreign experience, because the domestic experience was absent.
Studied was the impact of phosphogypsum and phosphogypsum-containig amendments on the properties of ordinary chernozem degraded due to irrigation with mineralized water (1.7-2.0 g/l), as well as on the crop yield. It was established the decreasing of soil sodicity by 50% upon applying the total calculated dose of phosphogypsum (10 t/ha), the increasing of calcium content in soil exchangeable complex up to optimal parameters (85%), the achieving of good water-stability of soil.
The estimates of emission and absorption of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases obtained according to the requirements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change with using methodology of the Center for forest ecology and productivity RAS are represented. The calculations were made for the managed forest lands distinguished in the territory of the Russian Federation Forest Fund (the 74% of forest land). From 1990 to 2009, managed forests were sinks for carbon dioxide from 231.5 mill. t of CO2 in 1990 to 700.8 mill. t of CO2 in 2009.