Romania

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Mine Closure and its Impact on the Community : Five Years After Mine Closure in Romania, Russia and Ukraine

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Against the backdrop of economic
transition, several countries in Eastern Europe have
undertaken far-reaching programs to restructure their coal
sectors, which in the 1990s were in a state of deep crisis.
One aspect of restructuring has been the closure of
loss-making mines, which are often located in communities
where the coal industry is the dominant employer, and the
significant downsizing of the workforce. Mitigation efforts

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May 2014

Romania : Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

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This poverty assessment for Romania
covers the period from 1995 to 2002, since the last World
Bank poverty analysis reviewed the evolution of poverty from
1989 to 1994, the early years of transition from a socialist
to a market economy. This assessment's objective is to
understand how poverty has evolved and how economic growth
and social protection programs, 10 percent of GDP, have
affected poverty, as Romania prepares for accession to the

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July 2013

Romania - Restructuring for EU Integration--The Policy Agenda : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Summary Report

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This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM)
looks at the broad reform program, including institutional,
governance, and economic restructuring reforms Romania is
pursuing, which are anchored in its process for accession to
the European Union (EU). The challenge is to expand
integration with the EU more broadly throughout the economy,
by relying on market driven mechanisms in a predictable
rules-based policy environment, with the state sharply

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September 2013

Romania - Restructuring for EU Integration--The Policy Agenda : Country Economic Memorandum, Volume 2. Main Report and Annexes

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This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM)
looks at the broad reform program, including institutional,
governance, and economic restructuring reforms Romania is
pursuing, which are anchored in its process for accession to
the European Union (EU). The challenge is to expand
integration with the EU more broadly throughout the economy,
by relying on market driven mechanisms in a predictable
rules-based policy environment, with the state sharply

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September 2013

Product Market Regulation in Romania : A Comparison with OECD Countries

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Less restrictive product market policies
are crucial in promoting convergence to higher levels of GDP
per capita. This paper benchmarks product market policies in
Romania to those of OECD countries by estimating OECD
indicators of Product Market Regulation (PMR). The PMR
indicators allow a comprehensive mapping of policies
affecting competition in product markets. Comparison with
OECD countries reveals that Romania's product market

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June 2012

Romania - Reining in Local Government Spending

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Sub-national Governments play an
important role in the Romanian public sector. In 2009,
sub-national spending was equivalent to 8.5 percent of gross
domestic product (GDP). Romania has frequently adjusted its
system for financing sub-national government over the last
decade. These changes reflect ongoing Government concerns
over the performance of local governments as well as
attempts to increase the transparency and stability of the

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March 2012

Romania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Background Papers

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The government has embarked upon a
comprehensive and difficult medium term program for
reforming the public sector aimed at rebalancing the
relation between revenue and spending and enhancing the
efficiency and efficacy of service delivery. The Romanian
economy has been hit hard by the global economic downturn.
Latest estimates suggest that real Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) may have contracted by around 7 percent in 2009,

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March 2012