Present-day Central and Eastern European agriculture is characterized by a high incidence of small-scale farmers who are not producing for the market. This paper uses household level data from comparative farm surveys in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania to analyze which farm household characteristics and endowments influence commercialization and subsistence farming.
In the framework of the established long-term monitoring of the Carpathian forest ecosystems, the assessment of changes in the plant species richness, type of plant communities and biometric characteristics and health status of forest trees, for getting relevant insights regarding the effects of the type of management, pollution and climate changes upon forest biodiversity and health, is one of the major objectives.
Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. The average land rent is significantly lower in new EU member states than in the EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. Subsidies have moderate to medium influence.
According to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990–1999), the risk indicates potential losses due to particular natural phenomenon, and these could be reduced by improving of prevention and education. People perceive these losses differently depending on phenomenon occurrence, severity, and impact in time. Starting from this idea, this research presents public perception on land degradation through erosion in a small area from the central part of Romania (south-west of Transylvanian Depression).
During the communist regime, Romania’s planned economy focused exclusively on production neglecting the environment protection. The lack of less polluting production technologies and of environmental protection measures led to excessive pollution in certain industrialized areas. This is the case of the town of Copsa Mica in Sibiu County, which in 1987 was considered one of the most polluted towns in Europe.
Central and Eastern Europe is experiencing significant land degradation, at the same time as social, economic and political transformation, and within the broader context of global climate change. This paper uses satellite data, primary field data and secondary information on Romania's social, political and economic dynamics, in a mixed‐method case study analysis of the drivers of, and responses to, environmental change and land degradation over the period 1984–2007.
The objective of this study is to assess the European (EU27+ and Ukraine) cost and supply potential for biomass resources. Three methodological steps can be distinguished (partly based on studies explained elsewhere in this volume) (i) an evaluation of the available 'surplus' land, (ii) a modeled productivity and (iii) an economic assessment for 13 typical bioenergy crops. Results indicate that the total available land for bioenergy crop production - following a 'food first' paradigm - could amount to 900 000 km2 by 2030.
Semi-subsistence farm households (SFHs) have persevered in Central and Southeastern Europe. An outlook on future perspectives of SFHs asks for reliable information onthe phenomenon of SFHs and the impact of policy measures on their development options:(1) intensifying farming, (2) diversifying income creating activities, or (3) exiting farming for waged employment.
The paper explores the importance of formal and informal institutionsin setting attitudes of private owners in respect to responsible forest management. Using a qualitative approach, in form of a case study at the level of Suceava County, the study identifies intrinsic values assigned to the forestland leading to attitudes and motivations in the use of the forest resource. The interviewed forest owners have identified the regulatory framework as highly restrictive having as a result various patterns of behaviours from strict compliance with the rules to illegal activities.
CONTEXT: The loss of landscape heterogeneity is causing declines of farmland biodiversity around the world. Traditional farmland regions are often highly heterogeneous and harbor high biodiversity, but are under threat of land cover homogenization due to changing agricultural practices. One species potentially affected by landscape homogenization is the Corncrake (Crex crex), which is threatened in Western Europe but remains widespread in the traditional farmland regions of Eastern Europe.