In 1990, Australia and New Zealand were ranked around 25th and 37th in terms of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita, having been the highest-income countries in the world one hundred years earlier. Those countries relatively poor economic growth performance over that long period contrasts markedly with that of the past 15 years, when these two economies out-performed most other high-income countries. This difference in growth performance is due to major economic policy reforms during the past two to three decades, both at and behind the border.
Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting eleven areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers.
To meet carbon emissions targets, more than 30 countries have committed to boosting production of renewable resources from biological materials andconvert them into products such as food, animal feedand bioenergy. In a post-fossil-fuel world, an increasingproportion of chemicals, plastics, textiles, fuels and electricity will have to come from biomass, which takesup land. To maintain current consumption trends theworld will also need to produce 50–70 percent more foodby 2050, increasingly under drought conditions and onpoor soils.
The effectiveness of biosecurity measures at national borders is influenced by thebehaviour and levels of involvement of travellers. Involvement is the importance orrelevance of an object or situation to an individual. Involvement helps regulate theway in which people receive and process information and thus influences the extentof information searching for decision making, and information processing andpersuasion. In this study, we drew on the concept of involvement to investigate theresponse of individuals to New Zealand biosecurity requirements.
We used the process-oriented niche model CLIMEX to estimate the potential global distribution of serrated tussock under projected future climates. Serrated tussock is a drought-tolerant, wind- and human-dispersed grass of South American origin that has invaded pastures in Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa. The likely effect of climate change on its potential global distribution was assessed by applying six climate-change scenarios to a previously developed model.
We conducted two field experiments to explore the reactions of feral ferrets (Mustela furo) to traps and bait dispensers set on pastoral farmland in central North Island, New Zealand. First, in 2004 we showed that only six of 13 radio-collared ferrets resident near four observation stations approached to within 8m of two stations, and only three of the six entered over 8days of observation. Five of the 15 ferrets available on the 6000ha study area eluded recapture, although all remained present.
Ecosystem level processes and species interactions have become important concepts in conservation and land management. Despite being New Zealand’s greatest contributors to global diversity, native invertebrates have been largely overlooked in the assessment of land values, and their diversity has often been assumed to reflect native plant diversity without justification. Invertebrates can in fact affect plant species composition, and in ecosystems such as New Zealand’s remaining indigenous and semi-modified tussock grasslands can do so in excess of more conspicuous vertebrate grazers.
The resilience of Christchurch, New Zealand's urban forest has been tested during a year of major earthquakes and aftershocks. Tree loss has resulted from mass soil movement, soil liquefaction, rockfalls, and land slips. At the time of writing, only 384 trees have been documented as removed, however, thousands more are scheduled for removal. Additionally, the changes to the soil environment resulting from liquefaction will require existing trees to adapt quickly to their new soil environment. Their fate will not be known for years.