The effectiveness of biosecurity measures at national borders is influenced by thebehaviour and levels of involvement of travellers. Involvement is the importance orrelevance of an object or situation to an individual. Involvement helps regulate theway in which people receive and process information and thus influences the extentof information searching for decision making, and information processing andpersuasion. In this study, we drew on the concept of involvement to investigate theresponse of individuals to New Zealand biosecurity requirements.
We used the process-oriented niche model CLIMEX to estimate the potential global distribution of serrated tussock under projected future climates. Serrated tussock is a drought-tolerant, wind- and human-dispersed grass of South American origin that has invaded pastures in Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa. The likely effect of climate change on its potential global distribution was assessed by applying six climate-change scenarios to a previously developed model.
We conducted two field experiments to explore the reactions of feral ferrets (Mustela furo) to traps and bait dispensers set on pastoral farmland in central North Island, New Zealand. First, in 2004 we showed that only six of 13 radio-collared ferrets resident near four observation stations approached to within 8m of two stations, and only three of the six entered over 8days of observation. Five of the 15 ferrets available on the 6000ha study area eluded recapture, although all remained present.
Ecosystem level processes and species interactions have become important concepts in conservation and land management. Despite being New Zealand’s greatest contributors to global diversity, native invertebrates have been largely overlooked in the assessment of land values, and their diversity has often been assumed to reflect native plant diversity without justification. Invertebrates can in fact affect plant species composition, and in ecosystems such as New Zealand’s remaining indigenous and semi-modified tussock grasslands can do so in excess of more conspicuous vertebrate grazers.
The resilience of Christchurch, New Zealand's urban forest has been tested during a year of major earthquakes and aftershocks. Tree loss has resulted from mass soil movement, soil liquefaction, rockfalls, and land slips. At the time of writing, only 384 trees have been documented as removed, however, thousands more are scheduled for removal. Additionally, the changes to the soil environment resulting from liquefaction will require existing trees to adapt quickly to their new soil environment. Their fate will not be known for years.
New Zealand’s success in raising agricultural productivity has been accompanied by higher input use, leading to adverse effects on the environment. Until recently, analysis of farm performance has tended to ignore such negative externalities. The current emphasis on environmental issues has led dairy farmers to target improvements in both environmental performance and productivity. Therefore measuring the environmental performance of farms and integrating this information into farm productivity calculations should assist informed policy decisions which promote sustainable development.
The question of how to effectively address agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is of critical importance for New Zealand and the world. Ensuring that our responses are effective requires us to first consider what we aim to achieve: why do we care about agricultural emissions?
The emerging biofuel sector has drawn great interest as an alternative source of fuel for transportation. The expansion of biofuels greatly impacts world agricultural markets, since currently, the primary feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production are field crops and their derived products. There is great interest in the potential of countries to expand their biofuel sectors through increased production of feedstocks. The long-term potential for developing first-generation biofuels in many countries depends on a large and constant supply of feedstocks.
This paper describes key linkages between land management activities and stream water quality for a 5230ha catchment used for intensive pastoral agriculture in southern New Zealand. Due to low annual rainfall and the wide coverage of soils with low available water-holding capacities, flood irrigation of the 2400ha of flat land within the catchment is an important feature impacting on farm business profitability and stream health. Water quality variables and nutrient and sediment yield estimates are reported for a four-year period.