Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting eleven areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers.
This note on integrating gender issues in recovery and reconstruction planning is the fifth in a series of guidance notes on gender issues in Disaster Risk Management (DRM) in East Asia and Pacific region. There are number of key challenges that women face in different elements of post disaster risk reconstruction and recovery. This note addresses the following bottlenecks: a) housing, land titling and property rights, b) health and post disaster violence, c) community services and infrastructure restoration, and d) poverty reduction, livelihood restoration and economic development.
The countries of East Asia and the Pacific (EAP) are among the most vulnerable in the world to the physical, social, and economic effects of natural disasters. Disaster impacts are not distributed uniformly within a population. Due to existing socio-economic conditions, cultural beliefs and traditional practices, women and men are affected differently. In many cases, the mortality rates for women in the aftermath of a disaster are much higher than those of men.
This report summarizes the results, lessons and recommendations to the Government of Lao PDR from two Technical Assistance projects (TA) “Supporting Demand Creation for Sanitation through Community Led Total Sanitation” and “Sanitation Marketing in Lao PDR” carried out by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program between October 2012 and December 2015. The development objective of the TAs was to increase improved sanitation and hygiene practices and change community behavior to achieve Open Defecation Free (ODF) status at the village level.
This Decree provides principles, regulations and standards on the management, monitoring of compensation of losses and the management of resettlement activities in order to properly and effectively implement development projects with the aims to ensure that the affected people are compensated, resettled and are assisted with permanent livelihood alternatives leading to improving of living conditions to be better off or to be at the same level as they were before as well as to ensure that the projects can contribute to the socio-economic development of the nation in sustainable manners.
This study investigates four decades of socio-economic and environmental change in a shifting cultivation landscape in the northern uplands of Laos. Historical changes in land cover and land use were analyzed using a chronological series of remote sensing data. Impacts of landscape change on local livelihoods were investigated in seven villages through interviews with various stakeholders.
A key challenge for land change science in general and research on swidden agriculture in particular, is linking land cover information to human-environment interactions over larger spatial areas. In Lao PDR, a country facing rapid and multi-level land change processes, this hinders informed policy- and decision-making. Crucial information on land use types and people involved is still lacking. This article proposes an alternative approach for the description of landscape mosaics.
The Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydropower project displaced 6738 people from 17 villages and 1298 households. This research focuses on four resettlement villages. Household interviews were conducted to learn more about variations in living conditions, traditions and culture in the villages that were relocated independently compared to villages in which relocation had merged older villages together. The case study suggests that most resettlers wanted to remain exclusively with their own village members.
This article examines the transition from shifting cultivation to rubber production for a study area in northern Laos PDR using an agent-based model of land-cover change. A primary objective of the model was to assess changes in household-level inequality with the transition from shifting cultivation to rubber adoption. A secondary objective was to develop explanations for the rate of rubber adoption in the study area.