Despite challenges in many river
basins, overall the planet has
enough water to meet the full range
of peoples’ and ecosystems’ needs
for the foreseeable future, but
equity will only be achieved through
judicious and creative management.
This paper examines the effects of wildlife tourism-based payments for ecosystem services (PES) on poverty, wealth inequality and the livelihoods of herders in the Maasai Mara Ecosystem in south-western Kenya. It uses the case of Olare Orok Conservancy PES programme in which pastoral landowners have agreed to voluntary resettlement and exclusion of livestock grazing from their sub-divided lands. These lands are set aside for wildlife tourism, in return for direct monetary payments by a coalition of five commercial tourism operators.
The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for
estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order
to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions
and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data
from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies
GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with
This paper applies the principles of water-use accounts, developed in the first of
the series, to the Nile River basin in Northeast Africa. The Nile and its tributaries
flow though nine countries. The White Nile flows though Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt.
The Blue Nile starts in Ethiopia. Zaire, Kenya, Tanzanian, Rwanda, and Burundi all
have tributaries, which flow into the Nile or into Lake Victoria. Unique features are
Lake Victoria and the Sudd wetland where White Nile loses about half of its flow by