This paper analyzes the political and institutional factors which are behind the dramatic changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the transition countries in East Asia, Central Asia, and the rest of the former Soviet Union, and in Central and Eastern Europe. The paper explains why these changes have occurred and why there are large differences among transition countries in the extent and the nature of the remaining distortions.
This report presents the results of extensive work of the smart green infrastructure task force commissioned by the World Bank under the Global Tiger Initiative (GTI). The report benefited from advice, ideas, and information about tigers and tiger-friendly infrastructure development from staff at the World Bank, and from several institutions that promote tiger and biodiversity conservation throughout the world.
The collapse of the Soviet Union gave rise to a vast archipelago of unclaimed man-made objects and land in Russia and beyond. Thousands upon thousands of roads, bridges, water pipes, gas pipes, power grids, cemeteries, farmland, and more have passed from state hands to no one in the last 26 years. These assets aren’t just lying around. They’re being used.
This paper discusses the economic implications of the preferential trade agreements that New Zealand is currently negotiating, using a computable general equilibrium modelling framework. The New Zealand dairy industry is a particular focus in the results, which come from the GTAP model produced by Purdue University.
The paper provides an overview of the institutional arrangements on the micro level that haveevolved in the agro-food sector of Kazakhstan in the course of transition. Emphasis is laid onmore complex arrangements like "agroholdings" and "clusters", hitherto mostly unknown in theagro-food sectors of established market economies. It is shown that "agroholdings" are concentratedmainly in the northern part of Kazakhstan and to a large extent in the grain sector, whilein the south a scattered small scale (individual) farm structure has emerged.
Sigificant dependence from climate and anthropogenic influences characterize ecological systems of Kazakhstan. As result of the geographical location of the republic and ecological situation vegetative degradation sites exist throughout the territory of Kazakhstan. The major process of desertification takes place in the arid and semi-arid areas. To allocate spots of stable degradation of vegetation, the transition zone was first identified. Productivity of vegetation in transfer zone is slightly dependent on climate conditions.
Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.
The carbon budget that was derived from forest land use has been extensively explored in most regions/countries of the Northern Hemisphere but is poorly documented in Central Asia. In this study, we proposed a localized bookkeeping model and estimated the sources and sinks of carbon from forest land use and managements between 1961 and 2010 in two arid regions of Central Asia, e.g., Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, China. The results indicate that the forest land use in these two regions acted as a carbon sink, with a total carbon sequestration of 43.27Tg and 20.74Tg respectively.
Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe ecosystem in the semiarid region of central east Kazakhstan. A limitation for determining the impacts of land use changes on soil organic carbon (SOC) is the dearth of information on SOC stocks under the predominant land uses in the region.