The collapse of the Soviet Union gave rise to a vast archipelago of unclaimed man-made objects and land in Russia and beyond. Thousands upon thousands of roads, bridges, water pipes, gas pipes, power grids, cemeteries, farmland, and more have passed from state hands to no one in the last 26 years. These assets aren’t just lying around. They’re being used.
This paper discusses the economic implications of the preferential trade agreements that New Zealand is currently negotiating, using a computable general equilibrium modelling framework. The New Zealand dairy industry is a particular focus in the results, which come from the GTAP model produced by Purdue University.
The paper provides an overview of the institutional arrangements on the micro level that haveevolved in the agro-food sector of Kazakhstan in the course of transition. Emphasis is laid onmore complex arrangements like "agroholdings" and "clusters", hitherto mostly unknown in theagro-food sectors of established market economies. It is shown that "agroholdings" are concentratedmainly in the northern part of Kazakhstan and to a large extent in the grain sector, whilein the south a scattered small scale (individual) farm structure has emerged.
Sigificant dependence from climate and anthropogenic influences characterize ecological systems of Kazakhstan. As result of the geographical location of the republic and ecological situation vegetative degradation sites exist throughout the territory of Kazakhstan. The major process of desertification takes place in the arid and semi-arid areas. To allocate spots of stable degradation of vegetation, the transition zone was first identified. Productivity of vegetation in transfer zone is slightly dependent on climate conditions.
Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change, depending on very fragile natural resources. The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.
The carbon budget that was derived from forest land use has been extensively explored in most regions/countries of the Northern Hemisphere but is poorly documented in Central Asia. In this study, we proposed a localized bookkeeping model and estimated the sources and sinks of carbon from forest land use and managements between 1961 and 2010 in two arid regions of Central Asia, e.g., Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, China. The results indicate that the forest land use in these two regions acted as a carbon sink, with a total carbon sequestration of 43.27Tg and 20.74Tg respectively.
Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe ecosystem in the semiarid region of central east Kazakhstan. A limitation for determining the impacts of land use changes on soil organic carbon (SOC) is the dearth of information on SOC stocks under the predominant land uses in the region.
The Ebinur Lake is a closed inland lake located within the arid region of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwestern part of China, near the Kazakhstan border. The shrinkage of the lake area is believed to be caused by ecological environmental deterioration and has become an important restraining factor for the social development of the local population. Of all the lakes in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the Ebinur Lake is the most severely impacted water body. The lake has undergone change in size naturally for over thousands of years due to natural causes.