Estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and changes under different land use systems can help determine vulnerability to land degradation. Such information is important for countries in arid areas with high susceptibility to desertification. SOC stocks, and predicted changes between 2000 and 2030, were determined at the national scale for Jordan using The Global Environment Facility Soil Organic Carbon (GEFSOC) Modelling System.
Soil erosion by water is considered a major cause for land degradation in Jordan, where 0.14 cm of productive top soil is eroded annually. This investigation is intended to estimate the annual soil loss in Wadi Kerak watershed, and to examine the spatial patterns of soil loss and intensity, as an essential procedure for proper planning of conservation measures. To achieve these objectives, the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) model has been applied in a geographical information system framework.
It is generally accepted that sustainable use and management of land resources will only be achieved by adopting a system of improved land, water and vegetation management. Given that watershed management is the implementation of management systems that ensure the preservation, conservation and sustainable use of all land resources. It is through this understanding that watersheds can be managed to protect the natural resources valued by local and national communities. This study aims to investigate the effect of water management on soil productivity at Marab Hassan/Jordan.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of deforestation on physical and chemical properties of soils under native forest in the Mediterranean region of northwestern Jordan. Land use/cover maps of 1953, 1978 and 2002 were interpreted and analysed within GIS to quantify the shift from forest to rainfed cultivation. Six sites were sampled in a non-changed forest and in cultivated fields, three for each. Different soil properties of texture, bulk density, organic matter, total nitrogen, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), phosphorous and potassium were analysed.
In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman–Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead Sea Transform Fault System (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size.
Six varieties of forage kochia (Kochia prostrata [L.] Schrad.), two Atriplex shrubs native to North America, and four drought-tolerant perennial grass varieties were seeded and evaluated under arid rangeland conditions in Jordan. Varieties were seeded in December 2007 and evaluated in 2008 and 2009 at two sites. Conditions were dry with Qurain receiving 110 mm and 73 mm and Tal Rimah receiving 58 mm and 43 mm of annual precipitation during the winters of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, respectively. Plants were more abundant and taller (P<0.001) at Qurain than Tal Rimah in 2008.
Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems are prone to desertification when under grazing pressure. Therefore, management of grazing intensity plays a crucial role to avoid or to diminish land degradation and to sustain both livelihoods and ecosystem functioning. The dynamic land-use model LandSHIFT was applied to a case study on the country level for Jordan. The impacts of different stocking densities on the environment were assessed through a set of simulation experiments for various combinations of climate input and assumptions about the development of livestock numbers.
The dry rangelands of West Asia and North Africa are fragile and severely degraded due to low rainfall and mismanagement of natural resources. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) interventions are used to increase soil moisture content, vegetation cover, and productivity. However, adoption of rainwater harvesting by communities is slow. To understand adoption constraints and to develop options for sustainable integration of rainwater harvesting, a benchmark watershed was established in the dry rangelands of Jordan.
Shared water resources are strong sources of conflict in the Jordan River basin shared by Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Syria and Lebanon. The control and allocation of water has been explicitly made a part of the ongoing peace negotiations. This article calls for the application of international water law in the resolution of water disputes in the negotiating process. The challenging task for negotiators is to translate water law principles into operating rules and procedures for the equitable apportionment of waters from shared water resources.