The story of agricultural policy in Northeast Asia over the past 50 years illustrates the dramatic changes that can occur in distortions to agricultural incentives faced by producers and consumers at different stages of economic development.
The remolding of the state from an autocratic to a democratic one in postwar Japan is sometimes regarded as a successful case of external intervention for state-building. When Americans landed in Japan two weeks after Japan's acceptance of unconditional surrender, they expected to meet a fanatic and intransigent people. Instead they were surprised by the orderly and peaceful behavior of Japanese soldiers and citizens (Tamaki 2005, 13-20).
Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting eleven areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers.
To meet carbon emissions targets, more than 30 countries have committed to boosting production of renewable resources from biological materials andconvert them into products such as food, animal feedand bioenergy. In a post-fossil-fuel world, an increasingproportion of chemicals, plastics, textiles, fuels and electricity will have to come from biomass, which takesup land. To maintain current consumption trends theworld will also need to produce 50–70 percent more foodby 2050, increasingly under drought conditions and onpoor soils.
We analysed Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data on the areas damaged by the Iwate–Miyagi Nairiku earthquake that struck Japan in 2008. The observations before and after the earthquake have been carried out in the full polarimetric mode. We observed the dominance of surface scattering of the three-component scattering model in the landslide areas and identified 11 of the 13 landslide areas. However, we also detected vacant pieces of land, pastures and other land bodies.
This study was carried out to determine the impacts of climate change on aridity and land cover in Turkey. Data for future (2070s) climate change, according to present conditions (1990s), were estimated from the prediction results of a regional climate model (RCM). The RCM, which was developed in Japan, is based on the MRI model. The potential impacts of climate change were estimated according to the A2 scenario of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES).
This paper examines the impact of farmland readjustment projects on farmland use and structural adjustment in Niigata, Japan. We use census data of rural communities for 1990 and 2000 to conduct pooled regression, first-difference, difference-in-differences, and propensity score matching estimations. We find positive impact of farmland readjustment projects in alleviating farmland abandonment and in facilitating outsourcing of agricultural works and farmland rental.
In the light of the Japanese government's intensive efforts to decontaminate areas affected by radioactive Caesium from Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant, I create a framework for assessing the merits of management options. In particular I consider delayed intervention as a possible policy. Delay can be optimal because allowing the natural decay of radiation can lower significantly the costs of achieving targets for exposure. Using some benchmark data for Japan I estimate that optimal delay is positive for most reasonable parameter values.
When pasture land is abandoned, there are, in many cases, inhibitory factors that slow the rate of transition to a natural vegetation. Accordingly, the planned management of restoration has become an important issue in various parts of the world, where environmental conditions can vary widely. Although tree plantations are widely used as a management tool for restoration, there have been few studies addressing the practical aspects of the procedure.