The paper reveals that ever since the 1950s, after the first land reform of distributing landownership (or possession under public ownership) to small farmers, the irrational and polyopolisticland use by able-bodied part-time and absent small farmers earning higher off-farm income butunwilling to lease the under-producing land beyond their family consumption need to full-timefarmers, has been a global obstacle with both public and private land ownership, traditional andmodern agriculture, fragmented small and consolidatorily enlarged land, low and high incomeeconomies, food under-self-suffi
We used the process-oriented niche model CLIMEX to estimate the potential global distribution of serrated tussock under projected future climates. Serrated tussock is a drought-tolerant, wind- and human-dispersed grass of South American origin that has invaded pastures in Australia, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa. The likely effect of climate change on its potential global distribution was assessed by applying six climate-change scenarios to a previously developed model.
Semi-natural dry grasslands are habitats of high conservation concern. These ecosystems have not been extensively explored in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Italian peninsula, particularly in the Submediterranean climatic region. In order to address this issue and to define the synecology, syndynamics and syntaxonomy of calcareous grasslands in this area, we considered 127 phytosociological relevés. Our sampling was performed in the Lazio region according to a stratified sampling scheme based on homogeneous land units, defined by means of an ecological land classification process.
Although human-related disturbance is usually detrimental for biodiversity, in some instances it can simulate natural processes and benefit certain species. Changes in the disturbance regime, both natural and human-driven, can affect species that rely on it. The Apennine yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata pachypus, an amphibian endemic to peninsular Italy, has declined throughout its range in the last 3 decades. We sought to identify the drivers of the decline in the region of Liguria, at the north-western limit of its distribution.
Over the last 50 years, the modernisation and mechanisation of agricultural techniques caused important habitat alterations in agricultural ecosystems that lead to the decline of farmland wildlife populations throughout Europe. During 2008 and 2009, we investigated the effects of Habitat Improvement Actions (HIAs) and reforestations on populations of common pheasant Phasianus colchicus in order to evaluate the influence of both habitat management strategies on pheasant male density and distribution.
Phragmites australis populations in native areas have been gradually declining since the mid-20th century. We developed a logical approach based on remote sensing to monitor the conservation status of P. australis beds in response to environmental gradients and orient future management actions in Lake Garda (northern Italy). During the 2010 growing season we collected data on: (i) the structural and functional status of seven P.
A very effective tool to combat desertification is revegetation. Promising species for this purpose are the evergreen shrubs of the genus Atriplex. The objective of the research was to study the growing responses of Atriplex halimus under different thermal regimes and to evaluate the biomass accumulation of selected clones. The test was carried out in four sites of Sardinia Island (Italy) characterized by different latitude, altitude and air temperature trends along the year. In every site, potted plants of five clones of A.
In this paper is presented a methodological approach which integrates statistic modelling and 2-D cellular automata (CA) in order to describe tree species shifts responding to the climate changes foreseen for Italy in the 21st century. Five Italian tree species populations of Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris, Fagus sylvatica, Acer campestris and Quercus suber and their actual potential distributions (PDs) – represented by Importance Value (IV), have been considered.
Europe is characterized not only by large geomorphological variability but also by a long history of land use. This resulted in a highly variegated landscape. Based on the IGBP‐transect initiative, a north south transect was established across Europe ranging from north Sweden to central Italy in order to study effects of global change. Mainly process oriented studies were established on plots along the transect, and these were used to establish functional relationships as basis for landscape integration.