The project ‘Water Productivity Improvement of Cereals and Food Legumes in the Atbara Basin of Eritrea’ is an example of organization and implementation of farmers’ participatory research, conducted utilizing the available indigenous knowledge while empowering farming communities. Farmers have been partners in technology development with extension and research, with full decision-making power in planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
In Africa, where most agriculture is rainfed, crop growth is limited by water availability. Rainfall variability during a growing season generally translates into variability in crop production. While the seasonality of rainfall in the drier rangelands can play a significant role in productivity, rain-use efficiency (RUE)—the amount of biomass produced (in kilograms of dry matter per hectare) per millimeter of rainfall—also drives production.
Drought is one of the major climatic hazards impacting on the various sectors including crop and livestock in the West African Sahel. Pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in the region are regularly affected by drought, with vulnerability differing with gender, age, wealth status (access to cropland and livestock endowment), geographic location, social networks, and previous exposure to drought. Effective interventions require regular monitoring of vulnerability to drought, for which various quantitative and qualitative approaches exist.
This project is about showing whether RMSs are effective. It will seek to quantify the consequences of improved RMS for community livelihoods, resource productivity, land quality, and downstream water quality and siltation. It will specifically measure the downstream, cross-scale consequences of successful innovation in the Ethiopian highlands.
This project will develop methods to anticipate ex ante the likely consequences of introducing improved RMS as well as monitoring and measuring these consequences ex post. Finally, it will introduce methods for adaptive management.
This project is about matching technologies (or whole strategies) with environments. It has been shown that “blanket” RMS are often inappropriate. One size does not, as they say, fit all. Strategies for upper slopes are likely to be different than those for lower slopes.
Remote sensed imagery in combination with secondary agricultural statistic was used to map crop water productivity (WP) in the Nile River Basin. Land productivity and crop tandardized gross value production (SGVP) were calculated at administrative level using the agricultural census data. Actual evapotranspiration (Eta) generated from remote sensing was used to assess crops consumptive water use. WP was then calculated by dividing SGVP by Eta in the cropped areas. Results show land productivity has a huge variation across the basin.
Livestock use and degrade much water in the Nile River Basin. New research suggests that integrated development and management of water and livestock resources will conserve water and increase the profitability and environmental sustainability of investments by governments, development agencies, and farmers.
Practical opportunities exist to enhance food security, reduce poverty, and foster benefit sharing. Institutions responsible for water resources may benefit from partnering with the livestock sector when developing water resources.
IN response to an on-line survey, 76 project leaders and staff gave CPWF Phase 1 a
generally favorable review. Respondents came from 68 CPWF projects in 45 countries on
three continents. The survey sought to help learn what went well in Phase 1, what did not
go so well and can be improved in Phase 2.
Nearly three-quarters of respondents felt that they had achieved different research results,
outcomes and impacts as a result of participation in the CPWF than otherwise possible from