When discussing water and sanitation issues, technology is often seen as the key element by many stakeholders. Within a multinational project, the opportunity was taken to analyse the experiences with the existing water infrastructure to look behind this assumption and - if not working satisfactory - to identify the key requirements that obviously have not been met. Following this, it should be possible to prepare a set of requirements to learn from this.
In this paper, existing wastewater treatment practices in 7 African countries, i.e. Algeria, Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, Senegal and Tunisia, are reported. Data were collected by questioning wastewater treatment plants managers as well as treated wastewater users in 2012. This study showed that 0.2 to 63 L/d/person of wastewater are treated in these countries, with the higher levels obtained for North Africa.
This study was undertaken to analyze farmers’ adaption to water scarcity in the command area of a secondary canal in the Nile Delta of Egypt. The results revealed that farmers’ responses were driven by a multiplicity of factors, beyond water scarcity or profit maximization. These additional factors include food security of the family, risk management, social capital and history of farmers, and most unexpectedly the collective dimension of crop choice.
This study attempted to predict the likely impacts of a dam reservoir and flow regulation on riparian plant composition and diversity. The study was conducted around the Koga dam in the upper part of the Blue Nile basin in the northwestern part of Ethiopia. Floristic composition and diversity in the riverine and adjacent sites of the river was studied. The presence of plant species that would be affected by the storage of the Koga River water and the modification of the downstream river flow regime were assessed.
Crop growth models play a major role in sustaining the world-wide food security. These models are used to simulate crop growth during the growing season, and the final crop yield at the end of the growing season, given the farmers’ management practices. At a more strategic level, these crop growth models play an important role to decision makers to take timely decisions regarding food import and/or export strategies. The simulation accuracy of crop growth models relies on the quality of the input data.
This paper provides the methodology and results of a cross-scale diagnostic performance assessment program of the irrigation water management in the old lands of the Nile Delta of Egypt. The analysis was done at three levels; main canal level, branch canals level and on-farm level of the Meet Yazid command (82,740 ha) for the year 2008-2009 to highlight areas for improvement. At the main canal level the annual average percentage of irrigation water returning to drains and groundwater was 53% of the total water supplied.