This global report examines the opportunity for special economic zones to promote women's economic empowerment and boost zone and enterprise competitiveness in developing countries. The research covers Bangladesh, China, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Jordan, Kenya, and the Philippines. The study focuses on women's economic empowerment in the context of zones at three levels: (i) fair employment and working conditions for female employees; (ii) equal access to opportunities for professional advancement; and (iii) investment opportunities for female entrepreneurs.
- Conducir la gestión de la política institucional de género del IICA.
- Promover la incorporación de orientaciones y criterios de género, juventud, igualdad y equidad.
- Brindar asesoría técnica especializada en inclusión social, económica y cultural, con foco en género y juventud rural.
- Apoyar el diseño, ejecución y seguimiento de actividades de cooperación y alianzas estratégicas en género y juventud rural.
- Diseñar y desarrollar programas de formación y capacitación en equidad, inclusión, género y juventud rural.
Remnant trees have been widely reported to facilitate tropical forest recovery, however, few restoration strategies can mimic the role such trees play in their absence. This study evaluated the establishment success and growth of planting oversized vegetative 'stakes' (>4m tall) of three species: Ficus pertusa (Moraceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), and Erythrina poeppigiana (Fabaceae) at three different sites in southern Costa Rica. I found high establishment rates for all species (range 67-100%) with no mortality for Erythrina.
Much information on restoration and management exists for wet tropical forests of Central America but comparatively little work has been done in the dry forests of this region. Such information is critical for reforestation efforts that are now occurring throughout Central America. This paper describes processes of degradation due to land use and provides a conceptual framework for the restoration of dry tropical forest. Most of this forest type was initially harvested for timber and then cleared for cattle in the last century (1930–1970).
Global efforts to reduce deforestation rely heavily on protected areas and land use restrictions. The effect of these restrictions on local communities is currently the subject of heated debate among conservation and development experts. Measuring the social impacts of protected areas is difficult because the effects cannot be isolated from other factors, given the nonrandom placement of protection.
It is presented as a summary the theoretical and methodological frame from which scientific studies are made, with which the regulator plan of Siquirres cantón (Costa Rica) has to be designed from. It is exposed the process of historic formation of the space that is studied. Later, it is summarized the empiric results obtained from the socioeconomically and physical-biological investigations in the territory in question. And, finally, a preliminary proposal is made of which are the dominant landscape units as a guide for the future planning of the cantón.
Current carbon accounting methodologies often assume interactions between above-ground and below-ground carbon, without considering effects of land management. We used data from two long-term coffee agroforestry experiments in Costa Rica and Nicaragua to assess the effect on total soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of (i) organic versus conventional management, (ii) higher versus moderate agronomic inputs, (iii) tree shade types. During the first nine years of coffee establishment total 0–40cm depth SOC stocks decreased by 12.4% in Costa Rica and 0.13% in Nicaragua.
The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an ‘off-the-shelf’ software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002–2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999–2001.
A modelling experiment is used to examine different land-use scenarios ranging from extreme deforestation (31% forest cover) to pristine (95% forest cover) conditions and related Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes to assess whether a change in streamflow dynamics, discharge extremes and mean annual water balance of a 73.4-km² tropical headwater catchment in Costa Rica could be detected.
Most work on the effects of land-cover change on tropical birds has focused on forest-interior birds because these species are assumed to be the most severely affected by forest loss. However, even species that use human-altered habitat types may be severely affected by forest loss. White-throated Robins (Turdus assimilis) frequently nest in coffee and pasture in southern Costa Rica, although several lines of evidence suggest the species could not exist solely in agricultural habitat.