The world faces unprecedented opportunities to reduce global poverty and improve human welfare. Strong global growth and better economic policies in recent years have substantially reduced poverty in many developing countries. However, with the recent financial turmoil in the United States and rising prices for food, oil, and other commodities, the world economy faces heightened risks and volatility. Policymakers around the world face the challenge of maintaining momentum in growth, as well as of improving the quality of growth.
This study on Latin America is based on a sample of eight countries, comprising the big four economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; Colombia and Ecuador, two of the poorest South American tropical countries; the Dominican Republic, the largest Caribbean economy; and Nicaragua, the poorest country in Central America. Together, in 2000-04, these countries accounted for 78 percent of the region's population, 80 percent of the region's agricultural value added, and 84 percent of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of Latin America.
Cities exist, grow, and prosper because they take advantage of scale economies and specialization wrought by agglomeration. But output growth inevitably stresses transport infrastructure because production requires space and mobility. To prevent congestion from crowding out agglomeration benefits and to expand the supply of urban land, cities must invest in transport infrastructure. Yet balancing the growing demand for infrastructure with its supply is often difficult. In particular, many cities lack the funding to maintain and expand streets and urban highways.
Notwithstanding the increasing cattle activity on the South American temperate forests, its impacts on the forests regeneration are yet poorly understood. We investigated the influence of cattle on the regeneration of monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria), an endangered conifer of the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina, on properties of small landowners and of timber companies. In thirty-six 100×20m plots, we recorded the number of seedlings and saplings from seeds and resprouts, the number of cattle dung pats and the density of parent trees.
The natural soil N supply in volcanic soils (Andisols) can be a significant source of plant-available N for agro-ecosystems. Nevertheless, intensive farming systems in south Chile apply high fertilization rates, which lead to high production costs and involve a risk for adverse ecosystem effects. In order to achieve sustainable land management, a better understanding of the processes that govern soil N availability and loss, and their external drivers, is required.
Co‐management (Co‐M), defined as the sharing of management tasks and responsibilities between governments and local users, is emerging as a powerful institutional arrangement to redress fisheries paradigm failures, yet long‐term assessments of its performance are lacking. A comparative analysis of five small‐scale Latin American shellfisheries was conducted to identify factors suggesting success and failure.
The rural economy is constituted of many economic activities as forest, fishing and of course agriculture, among others that are developedin nonurban areas. In this work the rural areas are analyzed from a spatial perspective (areal and georreferenced Information), in termsof density of population, distance to the centers of services and activities that are developed on them. The general objective is toquantify, characterize and hierarchize the rurality in the X Region of the Lakes – Chile, and to relate these levels to some developedeconomic activities.
There is a growing demand for improving the measurement of forest resources, with more frequent updating and better information on environmental variables. We explore the cost efficiency of a stratified two-stage design using area sampling to estimate the forest plantation and native forest areas in southern Chile. Analytical expressions for the approximate mean square error of combined and separate ratio estimators are derived applying Taylor linearization.
Este artículo pretende poner en discusión el tema del crecimiento económico, la demanda energética que este requiere, y los impactos territoriales que provocan las infraestructuras necesarias para suplir esta demanda. Esto desde la óptica del caso chileno, que por sus características energéticas la mayoría de estas se localizan en entornos rurales, sin embargo es en los territorios urbanos donde esta es mayormente consumida.