Unprecedented pressures on land and its governance have been created. As evident around the globe, where land governance is deficient, high levels of corruption often flourish. Under such a system, land distribution is unequal, tenure is insecure, and natural resources are poorly managed.
When we talk about corruption in terms of statistics, it’s easy to forget the human cost of abused power. Behind every fact or figure are real people, forced to live without the services, opportunities and rights they deserve. All too often, these stories remain hidden – silenced through threats and intimidation, or drowned out by louder, more powerful voices. But with the right help, people can and do speak out. From rural villages to global cities, we are working around the world to help people break the silence and stand up against corruption.
Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally plannedeconomic system started in the early 1990’s. During this time agricultural andrural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structuralchanges with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate ofsuccess in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food andagricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition"in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central EastEuropean countries.
Salinization of irrigated agricultural land threatens ecological sustainability and livelihoods of people. Salinization is especially severe in the dry lowlands world-wide and in Central Asia where large amounts of salts accumulated in the soil profile, originating from shallow saline groundwater (GW).
Rebutting Theodore W.
Turkey (Türkiye) lies at the nexus of Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. Turkey’s location, mountains, and its encirclement by three seas have resulted in high terrestrial, fresh water, and marine biodiversity. Most of Turkey’s land area is covered by one of three biodiversity hotspots (Caucasus, Irano-Anatolian, and Mediterranean). Of over 9000 known native vascular plant species, one third are endemic.
Land use and crop production in the Khorezm region in western Uzbekistan, exemplarily for the irrigated low-lands of Central Asia, is adversely affected by the excessive, non-sustainable use of irrigation water on one hand, repeated droughts on the other hand, and by soil degradation by secondary salinization.
The conversion of marginal croplands to tree plantations, as an option to address climate change, land degradation, and irrigation water scarcity, as well as to improve the welfare of local population requires prior analysis.
The paper examines agricultural production and productivity growth in two Central Asian countries – Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are characterized by a significant shift of resources from the traditional Soviet model of collective agriculture to more market-compliant individual and family farming. In both countries, the beginning of the policy-driven switch to family farming around 1997 coincided with the beginning of recovery in agriculture, namely resumption of agricultural growth after a phase of transition decline since 1991.