Present-day Central and Eastern European agriculture is characterized by a high incidence of small-scale farmers who are not producing for the market. This paper uses household level data from comparative farm surveys in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania to analyze which farm household characteristics and endowments influence commercialization and subsistence farming.
Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. The average land rent is significantly lower in new EU member states than in the EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. Subsidies have moderate to medium influence.
The transition of a centrally planned to a more market economy provides a natural Experiment on the role of institutions and exchange in economic growth. This paper uses a unique dataset based on a survey of 305 dairy producing and supplying households in Bulgaria to analyze the impact of late payments for delivered products and farm assistance programs. The results of the dynamic panel analysis indicate that late payments have a negative influence on farm growth, while contracting with interlinked farm assistance programs, had a positive effect on farm growth.
The objective of this study is to assess the European (EU27+ and Ukraine) cost and supply potential for biomass resources. Three methodological steps can be distinguished (partly based on studies explained elsewhere in this volume) (i) an evaluation of the available 'surplus' land, (ii) a modeled productivity and (iii) an economic assessment for 13 typical bioenergy crops. Results indicate that the total available land for bioenergy crop production - following a 'food first' paradigm - could amount to 900 000 km2 by 2030.
Semi-subsistence farm households (SFHs) have persevered in Central and Southeastern Europe. An outlook on future perspectives of SFHs asks for reliable information onthe phenomenon of SFHs and the impact of policy measures on their development options:(1) intensifying farming, (2) diversifying income creating activities, or (3) exiting farming for waged employment.
This paper deals with agricultural land in Bulgaria and some problems which could impede the implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy and the assimilation of financial resources from the EU Structural Funds.
This paper analyzes how imperfections of property rights affect allocation of assetsand welfare, using micro-survey data from Bulgaria. Co-ownership of assets iswidespread in many countries due to inheritance. Central and Eastern Europe offersan interesting natural experiment to assess the effects of such rights imperfectionsbecause of the asset restitution process in the 1990s.
The land restitution in Bulgaria led to a severe fragmentation in land ownership. This has an impact on the agricultural development and land market. The article investigates the land transactions on the sale and rentals markets. In order to explain the processes three new institutional economic theories will be employed: property rights theory, transaction costs theory and agricultural contract theory. First, the article reviews the appropriateness of each theory, and second, results of conducted survey in two regions of Bulgaria with different degrees of land fragmentation.
Bulgaria faced and still is facing many challenges in the accession process to the EU. Free movement of capital, and especially the development of the land market, is one of them. Although a progress has been made, land prices are still below the EU average prices. There are different reasons for this as, for example, very fragmented land after the restitution process, chaotic transactions, lack of bank credits for agricultural purposes, unrealistic expectations after the accession to the EU and others.
Floods exert significant pressure on human societies. Assessments of an ecosystem's capacity to regulate and to prevent floods relative to human demands for flood regulating ecosystem services can provide important information for environmental management. In this study, the capacities of different ecosystems to regulate floods were assessed through investigations of water retention functions of the vegetation and soil cover.