Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the ecommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug resistance gene, Pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQR but the extent of their emergence at population level remains to be explored.
The aim of the research project is to lift Afghanistan out of the identified knowledge gap on its water resources and therefore enable Afghanistan to remove her barrier to sustainable water resource development and management in the Amu Darya basin. At the same time it is anticipated to provide transparency of the potential impact of water resource development plans as well as of on-going projects to downstream riparian states as well as the donor community - which so far seems to take an administrative rather than a resource boundary approach.
Background: Even though Plasmodium vivax has the widest worldwide distribution of the human malaria species and imposes a serious impact on global public health, the investigation of genetic diversity in this species has been limited in comparison to Plasmodium falciparum. Markers of genetic diversity are vital to the evaluation of drug and vaccine efficacy, tracking of P. vivax outbreaks, and assessing geographical differentiation between parasite populations._x000D_
The paper demonstrates the application of a new water accounting plus (WA+) framework to produce information on depletion of water resources, storage change, and land and water productivity in the Indus basin. It shows how satellite-derived estimates of land use, rainfall, evaporation (E), transpiration (T ), interception (I ) and biomass production can be used in addition to measured basin outflow, for water accounting with WA+. It is demonstrated how the accounting results can be interpreted to identify existing issues and examine solutions for the future.
Date: 14/01/1384 (03/04/2005)
Sections (1&3) of article (3) and articles (12, 13, 16, 17, 20 and 22) shall be amended as follow:
1- Under section (1) of article 3 the expression ‘railway’ shall be added after the expression ‘highways’, and the text (and schools, implementation of urban plans) shall be added after the expression (seminaries or religious schools), and under section (3) of article 3 the expression (and legal) shall be added following the expression (canonical).
This law is enacted the provisions of paragraph two article nine of constitution of Afghanistan in order to regulate the affairs of the land.
Objectives of the law have included:
In order for the executions of the state to be uniform and integrated regarding [immovable] property across the country, and to solve the problems [faced by] people and the state in this regard, I approve the following:
Article 1. Legal Basis
The present law has been enacted in accordance with the requirements of the clause 2 article 9 the Constitution of Afghanistan to ensure land management.
Article 2. Objectives