Notwithstanding the increasing cattle activity on the South American temperate forests, its impacts on the forests regeneration are yet poorly understood. We investigated the influence of cattle on the regeneration of monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria), an endangered conifer of the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina, on properties of small landowners and of timber companies. In thirty-six 100×20m plots, we recorded the number of seedlings and saplings from seeds and resprouts, the number of cattle dung pats and the density of parent trees.
Access to Land & Tenure Security
Land tenure is the relationship, whether legally or customarily defined, among people, as individuals or groups, with respect to land. (For convenience, "land" is used here to include other natural resources such as water and trees.) Land tenure is an institution, i.e., rules invented by societies to regulate behaviour. Rules of tenure define how property rights to land are to be allocated within societies. They define how access is granted to rights to use, control, and transfer land, as well as associated responsibilities and restraints. In simple terms, land tenure systems determine who can use what resources for how long, and under what conditions.
Land tenure is an important part of social, political and economic structures. It is multi-dimensional, bringing into play social, technical, economic, institutional, legal and political aspects that are often ignored but must be taken into account. Land tenure relationships may be well-defined and enforceable in a formal court of law or through customary structures in a community. Alternatively, they may be relatively poorly defined with ambiguities open to exploitation.