Access to Land & Tenure Security

Land tenure is the relationship, whether legally or customarily defined, among people, as individuals or groups, with respect to land. (For convenience, "land" is used here to include other natural resources such as water and trees.) Land tenure is an institution, i.e., rules invented by societies to regulate behaviour. Rules of tenure define how property rights to land are to be allocated within societies. They define how access is granted to rights to use, control, and transfer land, as well as associated responsibilities and restraints. In simple terms, land tenure systems determine who can use what resources for how long, and under what conditions.

Land tenure is an important part of social, political and economic structures. It is multi-dimensional, bringing into play social, technical, economic, institutional, legal and political aspects that are often ignored but must be taken into account. Land tenure relationships may be well-defined and enforceable in a formal court of law or through customary structures in a community. Alternatively, they may be relatively poorly defined with ambiguities open to exploitation.

Source: GLTN

 

Journal Articles & Books
December 2012

Notwithstanding the increasing cattle activity on the South American temperate forests, its impacts on the forests regeneration are yet poorly understood. We investigated the influence of cattle on the regeneration of monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria), an endangered conifer of the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina, on properties of small landowners and of timber companies. In thirty-six 100×20m plots, we recorded the number of seedlings and saplings from seeds and resprouts, the number of cattle dung pats and the density of parent trees.

Conference Papers & Reports
December 2008

This paper assesses the economic value ofchanges in the attributes of farmers’ irrigation waterproperty rights in Tunisia. Changes on attributesgenerated by the transfer process of the property rightsfrom the collective to the individual level in addition tochanges in “constitutional” attributes were integratedinto three scenarios. The valuation was conducted usingthe Contingent Valuation Method through the elicitationof individuals’ willingness to pay. Results show positivewillingness to pay values for all scenarios.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2014

Property rights, the agricultural price index, forest area, population, income and timber price are important factors in the deforestation process. The aim of this study was to test the impact of these factors on deforestation in Iran using an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). The autoregressive distributed lag approach was also used to estimate the deforestation function. The existence of an inverted U-shaped EKC for deforestation in Iran was confirmed.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2013

Rio Grande water is intensively managed and regulated by international and interstate compacts, Native American treaties, local water rights, and federal, state, and local agencies. Legislation and engineering projects in the early twentieth century brought about water impoundment projects and channelization of the Rio Grande which led to the eventual loss of floodplain habitats.

Policy Papers & Briefs
December 2002

The Theory of the Second Best implies that any country with less-than-ideal resources can lose from international trade. Recently it has been suggested this means the South (poor countries) are better off suppressing trade with the North, especially trade in natural resource products, since the North has better developed rights to protect its natural resources. Here we show that the suppression of such trade may also impede the development of property rights in the South, but that even taking this into account, trade liberalization need not improve Southern welfare.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2011

The introduction to this set of papers highlights four challenges to the large-scale analysis of population growth at protected area edges in Africa and Latin America undertaken by George Wittemyer and colleagues in their 2008 paper published in Science. First, it raises questions about their sampling procedures, given national-level variation in systems of protected area designation and protected area estates. Second, it challenges the largely economic model of migration decisions that underlies their analysis.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2013

The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three case-study regions in Sweden, Germany, and South Africa, and elaborate on their role for biodiversity conservation in urban settings, with a focus on business sites. Cases cover both formally established types of urban green commons and bottom-up emerged community-managed habitats.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2013

Mexico’s 1992 agrarian counter-reforms opened up the country’s vast network of common property regimes, known as ejidos, to the possibility of privatization. This study investigates the relationship between dynamic common property regimes and deforestation in the wake of policy reform among eight ejidos in southeastern Mexico. Using institutional analyses, land use/land cover change (LULCC) analyses and a Forest Dependency Index, we examine how land tenure arrangements relate to land use and forest cover change patterns.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2007
Journal Articles & Books
December 2004

Genetically modified crops have met some consumer opposition domestically and abroad. This opposition has resulted in variety market and policy reactions with a large potential to disrupt trade and to become a focus of international negotiations. In this paper we consider the spillover from adopters to the non-adopters and non-consumers of GM technology. In the absence of any (organizational) transaction costs the assignment of property right to use the name corn will result in Pareto improving decisions with respect to the introduction of GM technology.