transaction costs

transaction costs are the costs associated with the transaction of property.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
December 2007
India
Southern Asia

Recognition of the importance of institutions that provide security of property rights and relatively equal access to economic resources to a broad cross-section of society has renewed interest in the potential of asset redistribution, including land reforms. Empirical analysis of the impact of such policies is, however, scant and often contradictory. This paper uses panel household data from India, together with state-level variation in the implementation of land reform, to address some of the deficiencies of earlier studies.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
August 2007
India
Southern Asia

Although opinions on impacts of land market transfers are sharply divided, few studies explore the welfare and productivity effects of land markets on a larger scale. This paper uses a large Indian panel spanning almost 20 years, together with a climatic shock (rainfall) indicator, to assess the productivity and equity effects of market-mediated land transfers (sale and purchase) compared with non-market ones (inheritance). The analysis shows that frequent shocks increase land market activity, an effect that is mitigated by the presence of safety nets and banks.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
August 2007
India
Southern Asia

Recognition of the potentially deleterious implications of inequality in opportunity originating in a skewed asset distribution has spawned considerable interest in land reforms. However, little attention has been devoted to fact that, in the longer term, the measures used to implement land reforms could negatively affect productivity. Use of state level data on rental restrictions, together with a nationally representative survey from India, suggests that, contrary to original intentions, rental restrictions negatively affect productivity and equity.

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
February 2008
Afghanistan
Southern Asia

This report is about how to progressively reduce over time Afghanistan's dependence on opium - currently the country's leading economic activity - by development initiatives and shifting economic incentives toward sustainable legal livelihoods. Specifically, the report identifies additional investments and policy and institutional measures to support development responses that can counterbalance the economic advantages of opium.

Policy Papers & Briefs
June 2011
Sub-Saharan Africa
Asia
Western Africa
Africa
Global
Central America
Eastern Asia
Oceania
Latin America and the Caribbean
South-Eastern Asia

Ownership and control over assets such as land and housing provide direct and indirect benefits to individuals and households, including a secure place to live, the means of a livelihood, protection during emergencies, and collateral for credit that can be used for investment or consumption. Unfortunately, few studies - either at the micro or macro levels- examine the gender dimensions of asset ownership. This paper sets out a framework for researchers who are interested in collecting data on individual level asset ownership and analyzing the gender asset gap.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
June 2008

The 2005 Gleneagles G8 summit in July 2005 stimulated a concerted effort of the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to broaden and accelerate programs on access to energy and climate change mitigation and adaptation through the Clean Energy Investment Framework (CEIF). At the Gleneagles summit, it was agreed that a report on the implementation of the CEIF would be prepared for the 2008 G8 (Group of Eight: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) summit hosted by Japan.

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
December 2008

This strategic framework serves to guide and support the operational response of the World Bank Group (WBG) to new development challenges posed by global climate change. Unabated, climate change threatens to reverse hard-earned development gains. The poorest countries and communities will suffer the earliest and the most. Yet they depend on actions by other nations, developed and developing. While climate change is an added cost and risk to development, a well-designed and implemented global climate policy can also bring new economic opportunities to developing countries.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
May 2009

This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
June 2009
China
Eastern Asia
Oceania

Capitalizing on the most recent estimates of agricultural price distortions in China and in other countries, this paper assesses the economic and poverty impact of global and domestic trade reform in China. It also examines the interplay between the trade reforms and factor market reforms aimed at improving the allocation of labor within the Chinese economy. The results suggest that trade reforms in the rest of the world, land reform and hukou reform all serve to reduce poverty, while unilateral trade reforms result in a small poverty increase.

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
December 2009
Mongolia
Eastern Asia
Oceania

This report is concerned with the development of the infrastructure which is required in order to support proposed mines in Southern Mongolia. In order for the mines to be developed, it will be necessary to provide towns for the new inhabitants, road and rail links to provide supplies and to transport the mines' products to markets, and electricity for the mines' operations. Water resources need to be investigated and supplied to the mines and towns.