occupation

Occupation is the physical disposition of land.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
December 2008

All countries have a formal economy and an informal economy. But, on average, in developing countries the relative size of the informal sector is considerably larger than in developed countries. This paper argues that this has important implications for housing policy in developing countries. That most poor households derive their income from informal employment effectively precludes income-contingent transfers as a method of redistribution.

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
March 2011
Russia
Europe
Central Asia

The objectives of the study are to: a) increase understanding of the effects and effectiveness of the implementation of the local government reform launched in 2006; and b) assess the impact of a World Bank-supported intervention that aimed to enhance effectiveness of the reforms by increasing local capacity and local participation. In line with these objectives, the study assessed the perceived effects and effectiveness of the implementation of the local government reform in selected provinces.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
December 2011
Congo
Africa

Although official warfare in the Republic of Congo stopped more than eight years ago, the pool region has continued to feel the collateral effects of war until now at a scale largely ignored by the general public. The pool region is where the Ninjas, a group of local militias, originated during the civil strife and retreated to afterwards. Peace and recovery did not gain traction in the area until 2010/11.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
August 2011

Adaptation to human-induced climate change is currently receiving a lot of attention in international development circles. But throughout human existence, natural resource-dependent people have exploited and coped with the effects of climate variability on the ecosystems from which they derive a living. Learning from this experience can help inform the design of appropriate policies for responding to human-induced climate change.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
November 2011
Philippines
Eastern Asia
Oceania

The Philippines has made significant progress in empowering women and in advancing gender equality. The government's policy on gender equality and women's empowerment has prioritized women's economic empowerment, advancing human rights and enhancing gender-responsive local governance. All these priority concerns are integral components of poverty reduction programs in the Philippines. The Philippines has made significant progress in empowering women and in advancing gender equality.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
September 2011
Ukraine
Europe
Central Asia

Labor mobility is determined by a whole set of different factors, but housing market is clearly one of the most important ones. Individuals do not make employment decisions without taking into account options of housing market. Economy constantly changes and diverse opportunities arise in different locations at different points of time. Badly functioning housing market can cause low labor mobility and restrain the ability of employers to match vacancies in specific locations. The issue of labor mobility is especially vital for developing countries.

Reports & Research
Training Resources & Tools
June 2015
Nigeria
Africa

This report aims to extract lessons on slum upgrading and involuntary resettlement policies and practices learned from the process of addressing the Badia East case, which involved complex interactions between affected people, NGOs, the Bank and Lagos State Government.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
May 2014

The great 21st-century migration into cities will present both a great challenge for humanity and a significant opportunity for global economic growth. This paper describes the diverse patterns that define this metropolitan migration. It then lays out a framework for understanding the costs and benefits of new arrivals through migration's externalities and the challenges and policy tradeoffs that confront city stakeholders.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
May 2014

The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables children to do homework. It frees up women's time and enables them to participate in the labor market. More subtly, a home and its environs affect identity and self-respect.

Reports & Research
Policy Papers & Briefs
November 2013

Urban areas tend to have much more productive labor and higher salaries than rural areas, and there are vast differences across urban areas. Areas with high salaries and high productivity tend to have employers that invest in much more research and development than areas with low salaries and low productivity. This paper addresses two questions. First, it discusses the causes of these vast geographical differences in wages, human capital, and innovation. The second part of the paper discusses regional economic development policies.