Although a large theoretical literature discusses the possible inefficiency of sharecropping contracts, the empirical evidence on this phenomenon has been ambiguous at best. Household-level fixed-effect estimates from about 8,500 plots operated by households that own and sharecrop land in the Ethiopian highlands provide support for the hypothesis of Marshallian inefficiency. At the same time, a factor adjustment model suggests that the extent to which rental markets allow households to attain their desired operational holding size is extremely limited.
Recognition of the importance of institutions that provide security of property rights and relatively equal access to economic resources to a broad cross-section of society has renewed interest in the potential of asset redistribution, including land reforms. Empirical analysis of the impact of such policies is, however, scant and often contradictory. This paper uses panel household data from India, together with state-level variation in the implementation of land reform, to address some of the deficiencies of earlier studies.
This study uses data from the complete computerization of agricultural leases in Malawi, a georeferenced farm survey, and satellite imagery to document the opportunities and challenges of land-based investment in novel ways. Although 1.5 million hectares, or 25 percent, of Malawi's agricultural area is under agricultural estates, analysis shows that 70 percent has expired leases and 140,000 hectares are subject to overlapping claims.
This paper provides an overview of land reform in South Africa from 1994 to 2011, with the focus on the land redistribution. The government policies and associated implementation since 1994 have not generated expected social and economic results for a number of reasons. Even where land has been transferred, it appears to have had minimal impact on the livelihoods of beneficiaries, largely because of inappropriate project design, a lack of necessary support services and shortages of working capital, leading to widespread underutilization of land.
Vietnam's rapid and sustained economic growth and poverty reduction in the last two decades benefitted from the policy and legal reforms embodied in the Land Laws of 1987, 1993 and 2003 and subsequent related legal acts. This note outlines reforms related to four main themes. The first relates to the needed reform for agriculture land use to create opportunity to enhance effectiveness of land use as well as to secure farmers' rights in land use. Prolonging the duration of agricultural land tenure would give land users greater incentives to invest and care for the land.
The Governor of Orissa in exercise of the powers conferred under sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 5 of the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of India has promulgated this regulation to Control and Check Transfers of Immovable Property in the Scheduled Areas of the State of Odisha by Scheduled Tribes (ST). Any transfer of immovable property by a member of a ST to non-STs, except by way of mortgage in any public financial institution for securing a loan granted by such institution for any agricultural purpose, shall be absolutely null and void.
Trans-Pacific View author Mercy Kuo regularly engages subject-matter experts, policy practitioners, and strategic thinkers across the globe for their diverse insights into U.S. Asia policy. This conversation with Dr. Spencer Cohen – Senior Economist at Community Attributes, a Seattle-based research consultancy, and former senior policy adviser for the Washington Economic Development Commission – is the 102nd in “The Trans-Pacific View Insight Series.”
In which areas has China’s market reforms shown productive results?
The paper submitted for the partial fulfillment of the Degree of Masters of Science in Contemporary India at University of Oxford. The study examined divide between the pro-poor approaches to rural industrialisation and transfers of agricultural land.
This study assesses land transactions with explicit reference to their impact on poverty and any land acquisition is likely to displace people in large numbers.
The expropriation value of agricultural land is determined by the income capitalization approach under Turkey's Expropriation Act. Accordingly, the value of land is determined by dividing net income by the capitalization rate. One of the major issues giving rise to misunderstanding in expropriation cases is the misuse of the capitalization rate. Currently, the overextending of expropriation cases contributes to investment latency and the escalation of expropriation costs.