In the Sahel, sandy soils are widespread and support not only most of pearl millet production, the major staple crop in the region, but also forage production for livestock. Parent sediments of these soils have an aeolian origin and hence are prone to wind erosion. However, the clay content, albeit very low, results in the formation of crusts during rainfall, thus leading to runoff and water erosion. Squall lines, major rainfall events of the rainy season, are usually preceded by intense wind.
In this chapter, results of recent research conducted in the northern Ethiopian region of Tigray, which has experienced severe land degradation are synthesized. This paper highlights the technological and institutional factors determining the adoption of natural resource conservation at both the household and the community levels.
Ecological restoration through exclosure establishment has become an increasingly important approach to reversing degraded ecosystems in rangelands worldwide. The present study was conducted in northwestern Ethiopia where policy programs are aiming to restore degraded lands. Changes in soil properties following establishing exclosures on communal grazing lands were investigated. A space-for-time substitution approach was used to monitor changes in soil properties after conversion of communal grazing lands to exclosures with ages of establishment ranging from 1 to 7-years.
Presents results of studies of settlement, land use & relations w. settled farmers of Fulani agropastoralists in Abet & Kachia Grazing Reserve in Subhumid Nigeria. Discusses reasons of choice of site, pattern & right of grazing and access to land.
In semi-arid south-western Niger, climatic variability, low productivity, poverty and institutional constraints limit the scope of agricultural production to meet the rising needs of the growing human population. The integration of crop and livestock production activities has long been seen as the most promising means for intensifying agriculture and improving productivity and food security. Livestock play key roles in mediating soil fertility through excreting manure and grazing crop residues and distant pastures.