Reports & Research
December 2002
South Africa

Customary Law has been a subordinate element in the South African legal order in that it was subject to state legislation, certain Courts could not take judicial notice of it, and it could be applied only if compatible with principles of public policy and natural justice. These were the requirements of the so-called “Repugnancy Proviso”. In addition customary law was subordinate to Roman-Dutch common law and the common law provided the model to which customary law was expected to conform. In fact all legal analysis or comments on customary law are mediated by western legal categories.

Journal Articles & Books
December 2008

The idea that properly designed environmental regulations can improve a firm's competitiveness while simultaneously contributing to a cleaner environment through the development of so-called 'win-win' innovations (i.e., that reduce environmental damage while simultaneously increasing profits) is usually credited to Porter (1991). Numerous studies have since attempted to assess the validity of the concept, with mixed results.

Journal Articles & Books
September 2014
Kenya

The first set of the land laws were enacted in 2012 in line with the timelines outlined in the Constitution of Kenya 2010. In keeping with the spirit of the constitution, the Land Act, Land Registration Act and the national Land Commission Act respond to the requirements of Articles 60, 61, 62, 67 & 68 of the Constitution. The National Land Policy, which was passed as Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, arrived earlier than the Constitution, with some radical proposals on the land Management.

Legislation & Policies
September 2016
Kenya

THE COMMUNITY LAND ACT No. 27 of 2016

Date of Assent: 3lst August,2016

Date of Commencement : 2 I st September, 201 6

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Reports & Research
May 2012
Kenya

Fiscal instruments are tools that governments use to manage revenue and expenditure and therefore influence the growth (or stability) of the various sectors of the economy. Government revenue is derived primarily through taxation. In Kenya, land taxation has contributed less than 1% of government revenue for the past three years. The Sessional Paper No.

Mozambique
Journal Articles & Books
December 1998
Swaziland
Benin
Zambia
Bolivia
China
Italy