Something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line.

Ghanaian cocoa farmer establishing specially-approved farm boundary pillars under the guidance of a Landmapp field agent (the pillar will be mounted with cement after mapping). Courtesy: Landmapp (
Reports & Research
April 2017

The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG), with support from the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF) the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), performed the Ghana Land Tenure Baseline Survey, the first of its kind survey of tenure rights among cocoa farmers in Ghana. CRIG surveyed almost 1,800 cocoa farmers operating 3,900 cocoa plots regarding various land tenure issues within customary sharecropping arrangements and on owner-managed land. This report describes the findings from the Survey.

André Villas- Bôas - ISA
13 February 2017

Na sua última reunião ordinária, realizada nos dias 2 e 3 de fevereiro, o Conselho Nacional dos Direitos Humanos (CNDH) deliberou por emitir recomendação requerendo a suspensão da licença de instalação do projeto de mineração Volta Grande, de responsabilidade da empresa canadense Belo Sun Mineração, na região da Volta Grande do Xingu, no Pará.

O ofício com a recomendação de suspensão foi enviado à Secretaria de Meio Ambiente e Sustentabilidade do Estado do Pará (SEMAS) nesta quinta-feira (9).

Mário Vilela/Funai
23 January 2017

Com a enxurrada de críticas, o Ministério da Justiça e Cidadania (MJC) voltou atrás e revogou a portaria n° 68, que mudava o processo de demarcação de terras indígenas. No lugar dela, conforme publicação no Diário Oficial da União da última sexta (20), foi criada a portaria n° 80, que ainda assim altera o processo.

September 2010

El tema de los límites a la propiedad, o más precisamente del establecimiento a través de la ley de límites máximos a la propiedad de la tierra agrícola ha retomado actualidad en los últimos meses en el Perú. A la fecha se han presentado hasta tres propuestas legislativas al respecto, no obstante es necesario revisar algunos antecedentes antes de pasar a las propuestas mismas.

August 2014

Using plot-level data, the authors
estimate a bi-variate probit model to explain land clearing,
and the siting of protected areas in North Thailand in 1986.
Their model suggests that protected areas (national parks,
together with wildlife sanctuaries) did not reduce the
likelihood of forest clearing, but wildlife sanctuaries may
have reduced the probability of deforestation. Road
building, by reducing the impedance-weighted distance to

June 2013

The trends toward ecosystem degradation
and social change are affecting coastal areas around the
world, not least in Sub-Saharan Africa. The crisis affecting
this region's coastal and marine areas requires an
urgent and resolute response from the global community. This
report details the challenges facing coastal and marine
environments in Sub-Saharan Africa. It describes the World
Bank's strategy for supporting sustainable development

August 2012

This article intends to summarize
findings from a study carried out by the author between the
winter of 1995 and spring of 1996 among the Buems on the
Ghana side of the Ghana-Togo border. The objective in this
paper is to identify and discuss the main philosophical
contexts within which the indigenous Buem conflict
management system operates. The paper also assesses the
relevance of these principles to the management of modern

April 2016

The Operations Evaluation Department
(OED) is an independent unit within the World Bank. The
goals of evaluation are to learn from experience, to provide
an objective basis for assessing the results of the Bank’s
work, and to provide accountability in the achievement of
its objectives. This report on the Post-Conflict Fund (PCF)
is one of twenty six case studies that have been prepared as
source material for the second phase of OED’s independent

June 2012

Conservation of high-biodiversity tropical forests is sometimes justified on the basis of assumed hydrological benefits - in particular, the reduction of flooding hazards for downstream floodplain populations. However, the "far-field" link between deforestation and distant flooding has been difficult to demonstrate empirically. This simulation study assesses the relationship between forest cover and hydrology for all river basins intersecting the world's tropical forest biomes.