Yemen

ISO3
YEM
Date of publication
August 2013
Geographical focus

The review focuses on development and
the environment in Yemen, particularly analyzing the
environment resource base, where renewable fresh water is
scarce, mainly ground water, and its over exploitation is
one of the country's major environmental problems.
Fisheries resources are also important, while oil and gas
are significant resources contributing to some eighty five
percent of Yemen's export revenues. Environmental
problems are caused fundamentally due to: population growth;
poverty; and institutional weaknesses. Main issues discussed
include water depletion, pollution and supply; land, and
habitat degradation, in addition to soil erosion; and, loss
of biodiversity, mostly resulting from poor management of
water and eco-tourism. Waste water and solid waste
management, including hazardous waste and pesticide
management, are outlined as serious environmental problems,
requiring immediate appropriate disposal. Priority actions
of the national environment action plan identify the need
for institutional capacity building regarding environmental
management, to include local pilot programs, as well as
disaster preparedness at Aden, and Hodeidah ports concerning
oil spills. Likewise, the water resources authority should
be strengthened, to include the development of water
resources information systems, and a comprehensive Water
Law. Land use planning should be established to promote land
zoning, and registration; a desertification control program
should be implemented, and grazing reserves, and pest
management techniques promoted. It is suggested waste
management would be improved through privatization of solid
waste collection, of water treatment, and of disposal of
hazardous wastes, while the regulation of hospital waste
disposal, should undergo pilot testing.

Date of publication
August 2013
Geographical focus

High and sustained rate of economic
growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient,
condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and
for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens.
Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to
rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance
that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in
domestic security, property rights, and rule of law systems.
Weak governance in Yemen is characterized/manifested by
widespread corruption, lack of transparency and
accountability, inefficiency in the interaction of public
officials and private business, ineffective or absent market
promoting institutions such as those enforcing contracts
(courts, tribunals, etc.), poor performance of the public
sector in terms of delivering essential goods and
implementing programs, associated lack of incentives and
skills in the civil service, and weak enforceability of
contracts and rulings. Along with ordering the governance
situation, there are areas that should receive government
priority in the short and medium term, including: 1)
enhancing domestic security to boost economic activity in
all economic sectors; 2) removing excessive and arbitrary
regulations to strengthen basic infrastructure and other
services and to attract private investment into these
sectors; 3) legal and judicial reform; and 4) sustained
implementation of civil service reforms.

Date of publication
August 2013
Geographical focus

High and sustained rate of economic
growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient,
condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and
for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens.
Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to
rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance
that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in
domestic security, property rights, and rule of law systems.
Weak governance in Yemen is characterized/manifested by
widespread corruption, lack of transparency and
accountability, inefficiency in the interaction of public
officials and private business, ineffective or absent market
promoting institutions such as those enforcing contracts
(courts, tribunals, etc.), poor performance of the public
sector in terms of delivering essential goods and
implementing programs, associated lack of incentives and
skills in the civil service, and weak enforceability of
contracts and rulings. Along with ordering the governance
situation, there are areas that should receive government
priority in the short and medium term, including: 1)
enhancing domestic security to boost economic activity in
all economic sectors; 2) removing excessive and arbitrary
regulations to strengthen basic infrastructure and other
services and to attract private investment into these
sectors; 3) legal and judicial reform; and 4) sustained
implementation of civil service reforms.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

From what was historically known as
'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and
happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the
Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed
in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform
plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity.
Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to
further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims
to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in
Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty
compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable
household budget surveys are available. The period between
the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less
overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures
the effect of the economic reform programs launched since
1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has
three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past
reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the
vulnerable poor through public action, and an assessment of
the poverty monitoring system. By examining the effect of
the key policies on poverty, such as the petroleum price
reform and the government's social protection
mechanisms between 1998 and 2005-06, the study aims to equip
policy makers and development partners with the knowledge
needed to improve the effectiveness of their efforts to
reduce poverty in Yemen.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

From what was historically known as
'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and
happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the
Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed
in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform
plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity.
Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to
further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims
to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in
Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty
compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable
household budget surveys are available. The period between
the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less
overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures
the effect of the economic reform programs launched since
1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has
three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past
reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the
vulnerable poor through public action, and an assessment of
the poverty monitoring system. By examining the effect of
the key policies on poverty, such as the petroleum price
reform and the government's social protection
mechanisms between 1998 and 2005-06, the study aims to equip
policy makers and development partners with the knowledge
needed to improve the effectiveness of their efforts to
reduce poverty in Yemen.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

Yemen is the second poorest country in
the Middle East and North Africa region, with 42 percent of
its population counted as poor in 1998. GDP has stagnated at
around US$530 per capita in real terms since 2002.
Unemployment, estimated at 11.5 percent in 1999, is expected
to have worsened as the population has climbed at 3 percent
a year and the labor force has burgeoned. Extreme gender
inequalities persist. Malnutrition is so severe that Yemeni
children suffer the world's second worst stunting in
growth. And natural resources are increasingly constrained.
Two-thirds of Yemen's known oil reserves were depleted
by 2003, and production has already begun to decline and
will plummet by 2012 if no new reserves are discovered.
Freshwater is also increasingly scarce: per capita
availability in Yemen is about 2 percent of the world
average and projected to diminish by a third in the next 20
years because of the expected increase in population.
Compounding these economic, social, and resource problems
are Yemen's policy and institutional failings, which
have prompted donors to cut aid. Yemen received a meager
US$13 in development assistance per capita in 2004. In 2005,
the Development Assistance Committee cut International
Development Association (IDA) 14 (2006-08) allocations to
Yemen by nearly a third, and the U.S. government's
Millennium Challenge Corporation suspended Yemen's
eligibility for assistance because of its worsening
corruption, regulatory quality, and fiscal policies. The
main challenges to Yemen's growth are the impending
rapid decline in oil revenues, the weak capacity of
governance institutions, the pressures of high population
growth, and the worsening scarcity of freshwater. The
country has yet to come to grips with the imminent oil
decline and its consequences. The Government is concerned
about governance problems and is recently attempting to
speed up reforms. The last two challenges-high population
growth and water crisis- are long recognized by the
government, but reforms have been slow.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

From what was historically known as
'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and
happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the
Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed
in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform
plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity.
Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to
further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims
to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in
Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty
compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable
household budget surveys are available. The period between
the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less
overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures
the effect of the economic reform programs launched since
1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has
three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past
reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the
vulnerable poor through public action, and an assessment of
the poverty monitoring system. By examining the effect of
the key policies on poverty, such as the petroleum price
reform and the government's social protection
mechanisms between 1998 and 2005-06, the study aims to equip
policy makers and development partners with the knowledge
needed to improve the effectiveness of their efforts to
reduce poverty in Yemen.

Date of publication
March 2012
Geographical focus

The Republic of Yemen has experienced
steady development in the recent past and its Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) per capita is approaching US$1,000. By many
aspects, Yemen is unique. It is still a rural country (with
more than 70 percent of the population living in the
countryside). It has about 140,000 villages and small
settlements spread out all over the territory, many of which
still need road access and harbor most of the country's
poor (40 percent of the total population). Given the uneven
distribution of population, transport demand varies
enormously between different parts of the country. It is
highest by far in the densely populated mountainous
northwest part of the country and generally very small in
the vast low density eastern part. Transport is essential to
ensure that the rural areas participate in the main stream
of economic and social life. Transport is also essential for
trade, which is a key to the future of the economy. This is
reinforced by the fact that most of the population is
located away from the coastal areas, including the capital
city, Sana'a, in some of the most difficult terrain one
could find in any country of the world. This report
comprises three main parts: (i) a broad assessment of the
situation of the Yemeni road sector and a comparison with
countries similar to Yemen; (ii) an analysis of the
sector's main issues; and (iii) an agenda for reform.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

From what was historically known as
'Arabia Felix', a land of prosperity and
happiness, Yemen has become the most impoverished among the
Arab countries. The government of the united Yemen, formed
in 1990, has launched so far three five-year economic reform
plans with the goal of restoring Yemen's prosperity.
Have these efforts succeeded? What policies are needed to
further reduce poverty? The poverty assessment report aims
to answer these questions. This report measures poverty in
Yemen in 2005-06, and evaluates the change in poverty
compared to 1998, the two years for which comparable
household budget surveys are available. The period between
the two survey years (1998 and 2005-06), more or less
overlaps the first two five-year economic plans and captures
the effect of the economic reform programs launched since
1995. In addition to measuring poverty, this report has
three objectives: evaluating the role of growth and past
reforms on poverty, identifying better ways to target the
vulnerable poor through public action, and an assessment of
the poverty monitoring system. By examining the effect of
the key policies on poverty, such as the petroleum price
reform and the government's social protection
mechanisms between 1998 and 2005-06, the study aims to equip
policy makers and development partners with the knowledge
needed to improve the effectiveness of their efforts to
reduce poverty in Yemen.

Date of publication
March 2012
Geographical focus

Yemen is particularly vulnerable to
climate change and variability impacts because of its water
dependence and current high levels of water stress. This
natural resource challenge is compounded by demographic
pressure, weak governance and institutions, and by a
deteriorating economic situation. The economic and social
outlook is not bright, and planning and international
support will certainly be needed to help Yemen to adapt to
the further stresses caused by climate change and
variability. In the light of these challenges, the
government has developed a National Adaptation Program of
Action (NAPA). In support of this, the World Bank
commissioned a series of studies of climate change in two
phases: the first phase projected climate change scenarios
for Yemen, and phase two assessed climate change impacts on
the agricultural and water sectors, and outlined possible
policy and program responses. The present study is
essentially a digest of the work done to date, and is
intended as a contribution to Government's process of
assessing vulnerability and adaptation options by: (i)
assessing possible impacts on the water balance and on
agriculture and rural livelihoods; and (ii) reviewing
adaptation options and the priorities for government
policies, strategies and investments.

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