Ecuador

ISO3
ECU

Persiste vulneración de derechos humanos de Codelco en Ecuador

On Fri, Sep 16, 2016

Fecha: 9 de septiembre 2016
Fuente: OLCA

Un muestreo comunitario en la zona de Intag, Ecuador, acaba de demostrar las nefastas consecuencias del proyecto Llurimagua (Codelco Chile/Enami Ecuador), que estando en fase de exploración, ya ha contaminado la cascadas Gemelas y la cuenca del río Junin, la que abastece directamente a las comunidades del cantón ecológico de Cotacachi, las que llevan más de treinta años resistiendo la megaminería en su territorio.

Date of publication
July 2013
Geographical focus

Ecuador's poor economic performance
is not solely nor mainly the result of high volatility, but
rather the result of poor economic management and,
especially, weak productivity growth. This connection
between productivity and economic growth has become even
more relevant in recent years, after Ecuador decided to
adopt the US dollar as the national currency in 2000, hence
forgoing the option of using exchange rate policy to
generate temporary increases in competitiveness and growth.
Although the decision to dollarize undoubtedly improved the
investment climate, reassured potential investors and hence,
potentially increased the capacity of the economy to create
employment and reduce poverty, sustained increases in
productivity will be required to maintain positive growth
rates and declining poverty rates in the future. As a
consequence, the focus of this report is on productivity
growth and its effect on employment, income and, most
importantly, poverty. The report pays special attention to
the relationship between poverty and the productive sectors,
both from a macroeconomic and a microeconomic point of view,
and both in urban and rural areas. In following this
approach, it not only complements the previous Ecuador
Poverty Assessment (World Bank, 2000c), which focused mainly
on poverty and social services, but also provides important
insights regarding the relationship between economic growth,
productivity and employment generation on the one hand, and
poverty reduction on the other. Moreover, in thinking about
poverty, the report concentrates on monetary, rather than on
non- monetary aspects of well-being, since it is the former
that appears to be more intimately linked to the evolution
of GDP and productivity growth and, hence, has exhibited
little improvement over the past years - namely, while
social outcomes and access to basic services in Ecuador have
improved slowly but continuously since 1980, the national
consumption-based poverty rate increased from 40 to 45
percent between 1990 and 2001, as discussed below, with much
larger increases in urban areas. . Finally, the report makes
use of a variety of sources, both quantitative and
qualitative, as well as of existing work in order to provide
policy recommendations that will help Ecuador and its
government design an effective poverty reduction strategy
based on economic and productivity growth.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

This paper provides evidence consistent with elite capture of Social Fund investment projects in Ecuador. Exploiting a unique combination of data-sets on village-level income distributions, Social Fund project administration, and province level electoral results, the authors test a simple model of project choice when local political power is unequally distributed. In accordance with the predictions of the model, poorer villages are more likely to receive projects that provide excludable (private) goods to the poor, such as latrines. Controlling for poverty, more unequal communities are less likely to receive such projects. Consistent with the hypothesis of elite capture, these results are sensitive to the specific measure of inequality used in the empirical analysis, and are strongest for expenditure shares at the top of the distribution.

Date of publication
March 2014
Geographical focus

This article uses survey data from
Ecuador to examine the effects of women's employment on
the allocation of paid and unpaid labor within the
household. The reader compares a region with high demand for
female labor with a similar region in which demand for
female labor is low. The comparison suggests that market
labor opportunities for women have no effect on women's
total time in labor but increase men's time in unpaid
labor. The increase in men's time in unpaid work
reflects women's increased bargaining power in the home.

Date of publication
August 2012
Geographical focus

The note looks at poverty in Ecuador,
assessing macroeconomic developments through its policies to
maintain stability with fiscal discipline, and increase
economic productivity and competitiveness, in particular,
the 1998/99 crisis, the 2000 dollarization and their effect
on poverty. From 1990 to 2001, national consumption-based
poverty rose from 40 to 45 percent, and the number of poor
people increased from 3.5 to 5.2 million. Poverty increased
by over 80 percent in urban areas at the Costa and the
Sierra, was stable in the rural Costa, and rose 15 percent
in the rural Sierra. Poverty rates continued to be highest
in rural areas, but rapid urbanization increased the number
of poor people living in urban areas. Employment is the main
income source, frequently the only one, for most urban
families. Thus policies that generate employment and wage
income are crucial for reducing urban poverty. The 1998/99
crisis sent employment and real labor income plummeting,
urban poverty rose, and poor urban households resorted to
various coping strategies, such as increased labor force
participation, and migration. Poverty declined slowly after
2000, reflecting just a weak formal employment creation. It
is stipulated social expenditures could be used more
effectively, for significant improvements are needed in
education provision, and quality, especially in rural areas,
while health service coverage must be expanded and
integrated better across different subsystems, and providers.

Date of publication
December 2013
Geographical focus

Spatial disparity in incomes and
productivity is apparent across and within countries. Most
studies of the determinants of such differences focus on
cross-country comparisons or location choice among firms.
Less studied are the large differences in agricultural
productivity within countries related to concentrations of
rural poverty. For policy, understanding the determinants of
this geography of agricultural productivity is important,
because strategies to reduce poverty often feature
components designed to boost regional agricultural incomes.
Census and endowment data for Ecuador are used to estimate a
model of endogenous technology choice to explain large
regional differences in agricultural output and factor
productivity. A composite-error estimation technique is used
to separate systemic determinants from idiosyncratic
differences. Simulations are employed to explore policy
avenues. The findings suggest a differentiation between the
types of policies that promote growth in agriculture
generally and those that are more likely to assist the rural poor.

Date of publication
July 2014
Geographical focus

The World Bank's revised forest
policy came into being in 2002 and covers all types of
forests. It has the following key objectives: (i) harnessing
the potential of forests to reduce poverty in a sustainable
manner; (ii) integrating forests effectively into
sustainable development; and (iii) protecting vital local
and global environmental services and values. The policy
enables the bank to fully engage in forestry throughout the
developing world, while ensuring that it complies with such
safe guard policies such as OP 4.01 (Environmental
Assessment), OP 4.04 (Natural Habitats) and OD 4.20
(Indigenous Peoples). On the other hand, the policy provides
only a general framework for its lending operations in
forestry and cannot take account of the individual
socio-economic and environmental needs of regions and sub
regions. To carry out the work, experienced local
consultants were recruited to prepare country level reports
following guidelines provided by the FAO Investment Centre,
the aim being to gain a strong local perspective on the main
issues and potential for sustainable and equitable growth in
the sector. These reports were complimented by reference to
an extensive literature base to produce individual country
reports and the summary which follows. Given the complexity
of forestry in the region, the need to involve large numbers
of stakeholders, and the need to accommodate change, the
findings of this report should not be regarded as
definitive, but rather as a first step to shaping the
Bank's interventions in the sector in individual
countries over the medium term. It should also be noted that
data have been obtained from a variety of sources, and that
inconsistencies and gaps were common; they should
consequently be regarded as orders of magnitude.

Date of publication
June 2012
Geographical focus

The impact of cash transfer programs on the accumulation of human capital is a topic of great policy importance. An attendant question is whether program effects are larger when transfers are "conditioned" on certain behaviors, such as a requirement that households enroll their children in school. This paper uses a randomized study design to analyze the impact of the Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH), a cash transfer program, on enrollment and child work among poor children in Ecuador. There are two main results. First, the BDH program had a large, positive impact on school enrollment, about 10 percentage points, and a large, negative impact on child work, about 17 percentage points. Second, the fact that some households believed that there was a school enrollment requirement attached to the transfers, even though such a requirement was never enforced or monitored in Ecuador, helps explain the magnitude of program effects.

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