Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency.
This tenth edition of Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting eleven areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers.
Determining the performance of ecosystem services at the city or regional level cannot accurately take into account the fine differences between green or gray structures. The supply of regulating ecosystem services in, for instance, parks can differ as parks vary in their land cover composition. A comprehensive ecosystem service assessment approach also needs to reflect land use to consider the demands placed on ecosystem services, which are mostly neglected by current research yet important for urban planning.
Great share of rented land in total utilised area as well as a significant variability of land rent and market prices of land causes a need of research that would assess which factors influence the land rent as well as the price of land and how significant such factor are in each state. The average land rent is significantly lower in new EU member states than in the EU 15 members. There is a strong dependence of land rent on the intensity of production. Subsidies have moderate to medium influence.
Forest fires in mountainous areas can cause severe deforestation which can potentially trigger secondary natural hazards like debris falls and avalanches. We documented an extreme case study for the range of possible post-fire land cover (LC) dynamics. We investigated a 15-ha, steep (10°–65°) burnt slope in Styria (Austria) at elevation of 760°-113 m, which burned in 1946 and has not fully recovered to date. Seven 8-class legend LC maps were produced (1954, 1966, 1973, 1982, 1998, 2004, 2009) and integrated in a vector-based GIS, mainly by on-screen interpretation of aerial photos.
The registration system of immovable property in Albania was chosen for four basic reasons: (1) it protects the right of immovable property owners by providing strong and reliable evidence about ownership and other interests in immovable properties; (2) it is simple and inexpensive to administer and maintain; (3) it provides the public with easily accessible information which they need to buy and sell, mortgage, and rent immovable property, thereby providing the basis for a market-oriented economy; and, (4) it permits the building of a Geographical Information System with property informati
Mountain regions meet an increasing demand for pleasant landscapes, offering many cultural ecosystem services to both their residents and tourists. As a result of global change, land managers and policy makers are faced with changes to this landscape and need efficient evaluation techniques to assess cultural ecosystem services. This study provides a spatially explicit modelling approach to estimating aesthetic landscape values by relating spatial landscape patterns to human perceptions via a photo-based survey.
In 2003 a research study looked at the position of smallholders; the survey was carried outusing questionnaires and interviews. The 613 farms included in the survey were situated in 3counties in the Southern Great Plain of Hungary and in 3 counties of the Western part of thecountry (Transdanubia). The results of the survey showed that there was a firm tendency ofconcentration among the Hungarian individual farms. Though their average size is about 3 ha,the number and area of farms over 50 ha size are rapidly growing and taking a significant partof the total individual agricultural area.
Combined elaboration of the first and second parts of papers prepared for presentation at the IAMO FORUM 2007 Halle, Germany 24-29 June 2007 and the IAAE-EAAE 104th seminar Budapest, Hungary 6-8 September 2007.
Farmers are key actors in land management confronted with societyâs increasing demand for public goods. Understanding farmersâ values and motivations is essential to policy makers to foster more sustainable production practices. So far, no definite value profile for European farmers exists. Based on Schwartzâs theory of basic human values, we statistically analyzed six rounds of the European Social Survey to explore farmersâ value orientations in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland.