tourism

Date of publication
January 2011
Geographical focus

In Laikipia the key dynamics centre on absentee land, much of this being land that was divvied out to Kikuyu by Kenyatta after independence. Much of this land (particularly north of the 600mm rainfall band) is not viable for cultivation. However, it was used by the Kikuyu title-holders as collateral to acquire loans with the Agricultural Development Corporation and others. Maasai, Samburu and Pokot herders have been grazing this land since the 1970s. Now, former commercial ranch managers are setting up as brokers and are identifying the title holders of the absentee lands to convince them to consolidate their holdings and sell, as there is a new rush for land by foreign diplomats, aid workers, and even some Zimbabwean white farmers. The buyers of these consolidated plots are now fencing, which has created tensions understandably with the Maasai and other herders who have been using this land for a generation.

Geographical focus

Short article discussing challenges and solutions to Simanjro Conservation Easement in northern Tanzania.

Date of publication
January 2011
Geographical focus

This paper presents a discussion of the communal tenure system in Olkiramatian, a group ranch in the southern rangelands of Kenya which has granted the residents the flexibility and choice to pursue diversification alternatives that demand open landscapes. The local governance system, on the other hand, has provided an institutional framework for apportioning land and resources to divergent economic practices, and for collectively overseeing and managing livelihoods activities.  In contrast to other Maasai areas where land is individually owned, people in Olkiramatian have the added benefit of engaging in “collective” land use activities, such as conservation and eco-tourism. At this community level, the residents jointly own and manage the land, which, they are also using to experiment on emerging economic opportunities.

Date of publication
January 2007
Geographical focus

Conservation enterprises are commercial activities designed to create benefit flows that support a conservation objective. The Koija ‘Starbeds’ Ecolodge was created jointly by a community group, a private sector partner and the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) to help protect a critical wildlife corridor and habitat along the Ewaso Nyiro River in the Samburu Heartland (www.awf.org). Many conservation enterprises claim success mainly based on their noble intentions,
but in fact are heavily subsidized commercial projects. Six years after the Koija enterprise opened for business, this paper looks at its performance based on the triple bottom line of commercial success, conservation impact and improvement of livelihoods. The paper concludes that the Koija Starbeds have shown very good commercial success, with good but less clear-cut results on conservation impact and livelihoods. The paper also makes recommendations for future conservation enterprises in similar areas in Kenya.

Date of publication
January 2006
Geographical focus

Between 1999 and 2002, interviews were conducted in Laikipia District to examine whether pastoralists also experience conflict, and to determine whether wildlife conservation provided appreciable benefits to residents, or fostered pro-conservation attitudes
among residents. Three properties, Endana, Koija and Mpala, were selected to include the two primary land uses in Laikipia (livestock and agriculture) and two levels of wildlife-based benefits (indirect benefits and direct benefits from a locally-owned tourism operation). People were negative about many aspects of local wildlife conservation, especially animals
that raided crops or were dangerous. Fundamental differences in attitudes were attributable to primary land use; within ethnic groups, people practising agriculture were less tolerant of elephants than people practising pastoralism. Despite evidence that elephants may compete with livestock for forage, ecological competition was not a primary concern
among cattle-keeping people. In communities that received indirect benefits from tourism or wildlife, the connection between wildlife and employment or aid in kind was usually overlooked. Unlike elsewhere in Africa, education and wealth did not correlate
with positive attitudes towards wildlife because the tourism programme was improving the situation and the outlook of people lacking education and material wealth. Pastoral people with indirect financial benefits expressed positive attitudes towards elephants for
aesthetic reasons, while pastoral people with direct benefits cited financial rewards derived from tourism but attributed aesthetic values to livingwith elephants. The programme in the pastoral community receiving benefits was exemplary in that benefits were tangible,
and the participants appreciated the linkage between benefits and active conservation.Land conversion from pastoralism to agriculture threatens elephant survival, not only in terms of habitat loss, but also in terms of lost tolerance among people who have shifted to farming.

Date of publication
January 2011
Geographical focus

This report provides an overview of land use conflicts in Loliondo. According to the Village Land Act No. 5 1999, all land in Loliondo is classified as Village Land. However, there is spatial overlap of Village Lands and a Game Controlled Areas. Prior to 2009 GCAs had not bearing on land use or management; however the 2009 Wildlife Conservation Act prohibits farming and livestock grazing in GCA. This new Act poses a huge problem to pastoral commuinities. An economic summary provides a better understanding of initial revenue that could be generated from Loliondo. This summary informs the final section of the report, which evaluated the land tenure and land use options and the various implications associated with each.

Date of publication
January 2009
Geographical focus

The land management practices of pastoralist Maasai communities have a major bearing on landscapes and wildlife habitats in northern Tanzania. Pastoralists manage lands according to locally devised rules designed to manage and conserve key resources such as pastures and water sources. Dry season grazing reserves are an important part of traditional land management systems in many pastoralist communities, providing a ‘grass bank’ for livestock to consume during the long dry season when forage invariably becomes scarce and domestic animals are stressed for water and nutrients. Maintenance of grazing reserves, and other pastoralist management practices, helps to conserve wildlife on pastoralist lands. The available evidence suggests that pastoralists and wildlife continue to co‐exist in northern Tanzanian savannahs ecosystems, with pastoralists having few significant negative, and in some cases positive, impacts on wildlife densities and diversity. Wildlife relies extensively on pastoralist managed lands, both those immediately adjacent to state protected areas and across the broader landscape. Using data regarding the degree that wildlife depends on pastoralist lands, and the relative importance of different parks and ecosystems in terms of generating revenue for the northern safari circuit, Nelson estimates the annual value of pastoralist land management practices to the wildlife‐based tourism industry in northern Tanzania of approximately $85 million. This is a minimum figure and does not include wider indirect benefits from pastoralist conservation measures. The economic value of pastoralists’ contribution to wildlife conservation highlights the importance of Tanzanian policies in land, livestock, tourism, and wildlife sectors prioritizing measures that promote communal rangeland management and support traditional local management systems.

Date of publication
January 2007
Geographical focus

As with natural resource management reform processes elsewhere in East Africa, Tanzanian CWM has become highly contested terrain, both physically and conceptually. The linear, centrally-led, devolutionary reform processes that were conceptualised by donor and NGO supporters of CWM in the mid-1990s have not materialised. Rather, multi-faceted political and institutional conflicts over the control of valuable land and wildlife resources characterise CWM in Tanzania today. Local jurisdictions for wildlife management have not emerged, and while a considerable amount of land has been set aside by rural villages for wildlife conservation through the work of various pilot initiatives, this has not resulted in an increase in local
revenues from wildlife or new commercial opportunities. The outcomes of over a decade of CWM in Tanzania reflect broader internal political
struggles over land rights, resource governance, and participation in policy formulation, as well as challenges facing efforts to devolve natural resource management to local communities throughout the tropics. One implication of these outcomes is that the strategies and assumptions used by international aid donors, conservation and development NGOs, and local activists for promoting greater local control over valuable natural resources such as wildlife in Tanzania need to be rethought. CWM needs to be approached as part of a broader social process of building local rights and access to resources through institutional reforms, rather than as a project-based or technical assistance strategy with short time horizons. The paper concludes with some suggestions for how practitioners in Tanzania and elsewhere might foster more effective and adaptive CWM approaches in light of these outcomes and experiences.

Date of publication
January 2009
Geographical focus

This policy brief focuses on ecotourism in north-eastern Kenya and is based on the analysis of two key existing ecotourism industry models in Laikipia and Isiolo. The purpose of the work was to provide the Government of Kenya (GoK) policymakers and private sector investors with a deeper understanding of the eco-tourism industry already established in the region. As highlighted, the study is based on two different ecotourism models (and four enterprises) in pro-pastoral communities in Laikipia and Isiolo using a framework of common qualitative measures of analysis. The enterprises selected represent a variety of operating tourism models for further discussion in north-eastern Kenya and include both community owned and jointventure
(hybrid) models.
Specifically, the brief reports on the analysis of the following factors:
1. Describe how the eco-tourism enterprise is formed, financed and managed; and
2. Assess the socio-cultural, economic and environmental impacts of the model.
Additionally, the policy brief presents a critical analysis of the constraints and opportunities for pro-pastoral ecotourism enterprises more broadly in the enabling

Date of publication
January 2007
Geographical focus

Pastoralism has suffered untold abuses in the implementation of national policy and laws before in the incorporation of bills of rights in the constitution. These provisions allowed freedom of association that enable formation of CSOs and NGOs, some of which based their interventions into policies and legal issues that denied pastoralists of the rights to engage into livelihood processes through access to, management of, and benefit from land and resources entailed in them. This study employed a policy analysis approach to the implementation of positive provision that had positive outcome to pastoralists and pastoralism.

This study has five sections; the introduction, background to the study, rangeland resource management by pastoralists, policy environment; land policy; wildlife policy and act and forest policy as well as tourism policy. In addition a discussion on livestock policy was offered and lastly conclusions and recommendations.

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