pastoralism

Date of publication
January 2013
Geographical focus

News, views and experiences of policy-makers, practitioners and communities on making rangelands secure for local users

Date of publication
January 2013
Geographical focus

A review of examples and experiences of making rangelands secure.

Date of publication
January 2012
Geographical focus

The Sustainable Rangeland Management Project (SRMP) aims at securing land and resource
rights of pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and crop farmers, while improving land management
by supporting village and district land use planning and rangeland management in Kiteto,
Bahi, Chamwino and Kondoa Districts in Tanzania. More broadly, it aims at influencing policy
formulation and implementation on these issues. An important part of this endeavour is to introduce new ideas and suggest improvements to the village land use planning (VLUP) process in order to better contribute to sustainable rangeland management. A key challenge, for example, is ensuring the maintenance of livestock movements for optimising pastoral production systems across village boundaries. Participatory rangeland mapping proved to be a useful tool for documenting and gaining a better understanding of methods for facilitating such movements into the VLUP mapping process. In response, CARE Tanzania and the ILC technical advisor organised a five-day training and pilot process mapping in two neighbouring villages – Ng’abolo and Ndedo villages in Kiteto District.

Date of publication
January 2012
Geographical focus

Investment in land is not conflict-neutral, and given the history of violent conflict and mutual destabilization in the Horn of Africa there is potential for localized political grievances to turn into wider regional conflict. There is significant foreign investment in land in Ethiopia by parties from Africa and further afield. This is primarily geared towards producing for the export market, and is often concentrated in regions with limited political influence. In South Sudan, much investment activity appears to be speculative, while Sudan has a long history of large-scale agricultural investment. The Ethiopian government appears to be using private capital (most noticeably foreign investment) as a means of generating revenue for the state from peripheral areas. Large-scale land investment should be seen as an extension of the historical processes of state formation. Access to accurate information about the extent and nature of large-scale foreign investment in Ethiopian, Sudanese and South Sudanese land is extremely limited. So broader narratives of ‘land-grabbing’ – seeing governments as unwitting victims or as predatory regimes – are a potentially misleading oversimplification in the Horn
of Africa, where local populations do not lack agency in this process.

Geographical focus

The overarching goal of this study was to understand the bottlenecks and the incentives present in forest management in the Kyrgyz Republic. The study focused on the legal, policy, social, institutional, and governance constraints that prevent rural communities living within and around forest lands from increasing the benefits they derive from the use of forest resources, while preserving fragile forest ecosystems. It includes a review of formal institutions and the policy and legislation underpinning forest management, as well as the de facto governance and use arrangements of communities in and near forested areas.

Date of publication
January 2005
Geographical focus

The document provides a comprehensive study on past and current land management, including an overview of legislation on pasture access and management, and pratical examples of pasture management in practice.

Date of publication
January 2012
Geographical focus

Significant progress has been made over the past decade or so in the development of policy and legislation that support the recognition of customary rights to land, with important legal rulings in Tanzania, Uganda, Mozambique, South Sudan, and South Africa. At the same time, the strengthening of communities’ traditional rights to use resources has progressed through community forest reserves and community conservation areas. However, many commons remain highly vulnerable, with land being removed by governments for national parks and large tracts appropriated for commercial agricultural investment on a regular basis. In particular this is true of the rangelands, where external interest in land for agriculture, and in its resources for other commercial ventures such as tourism, has grown. Even the most progressive policies and legislation still fail to provide adequate protection to many rangeland users and, most commonly, to the poorest and least powerful. At the same time, customary institutions that would have provided adequate protection in the past have been weakened due to both internal and external influences. This is the situation faced by many members of the International Land Coalition (ILC) working with rural communities who are highly vulnerable to land and resource appropriation and loss. In an attempt to address this, in October 2010 ILC brought a group of its members together in Addis Ababa to develop a learning initiative that will explore this topic through 2011–2012.1 The aim of this initiative is to identify ways in which the security of customary land users over their common property resources (including land) can be strengthened. In particular, it will focus on multi-use landscapes or territories such as rangelands, where the vulnerability of land and resource users is particularly high. As a first step in the development of the learning initiative, this scoping paper explores past and present experiences of land and resource tenure in rangelands (predominantly in Africa, where the bulk of the rangelands are located). It discusses the limitations of many of the tools and systems used to date, and identifies alternatives that have potential for providing greater security of tenure to rangeland users in the future. The further exploration of these alternatives will be the task of those taking part in the learning initiative over the next year. This document is a Working Document, and feedback, input and suggestions are welcomed by the author.

Date of publication
January 2010
Geographical focus

This paper presents several case studies to show how the Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT) has been working within Tanzania’s legal and policy framework to support a diverse range of pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, all of whom face
fundamental threats from external appropriation of, or encroachment on, lands and natural resources. The work also responds to local needs to rationalise resource use rights amongst competing local groups, such as farmers and livestock keepers. By using participatory
land use planning, it is possible to balance the need to secure local tenure with the need management practices in semi-arid environments. It can also strengthen the voice of local groups in the face of external pressures. However, major questions remain about the ability of local groups to enforce resource access and use rules, particularly in relation to more powerful central government and external are ignored or contravened. This highlights the importance of on-going engagement with political and policy processes whilst also working on local planning initiatives. Formalising land rights at the village level also involves trade-offs between strengthening local rights and maintaining access to resources at the larger scales needed for example by pastoralists in semi-arid regions. As climate change continues to change the ecological parameters of local production systems, such trade-offs will need to be continuously appraised and addressed.

Date of publication
January 2011
Geographical focus

This Project Information Note (PIN) outlines an initial application to the Plan Vivo Foundation for working with select pastoralist and hunter-gatherer communities in Mongo wa Mono village, Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania (34°30’/03°30’S). By working in conjunction with both traditional leaders and the elected village government, Carbon Tanzania (CT) and Ujamaa Community Resource Trust (UCRT) aim to create a system of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) through carbon storage, which will enhance and diversify local incomes, strengthen local natural resource management, land tenure, and management capacity, and contribute to local, national, and global environmental conservation aims. This will be achieved by reinforcing and strengthening the implementation of the current land use plan  and village by-laws by creating a long-term payment system for
reforestation using native species and reducing deforestation and the associated causes such as agricultural farming and pole cutting through improved forest conservation and management.

Geographical focus

The Simanjiro plains provide a key wet season dispersal area for wildebeest and zebra migrating from northern Tanzania’s Tarangire National Park. The plains lie within the boundaries of
the lands of three villages occupied by Maasai pastoralists. Wildlife populations have declined substantially over the past two decades, largely as a result of illegal over-hunting and the spread of agricultural land uses in the area. Efforts to enlist local community support for wildlife conservation have, since the 1970s, been undermined by conflicts over land tenure and resource use. In order to address the deteriorating status of wildlife populations and their habitat on the Simanjiro plains, an alternative framework for community- based conservation wasdeveloped starting in 2005 through a payments for ecosystem services (PES) agreement. This agreement emerged from the collaboration of local communities with a diverse group of NGOs and private tourism companies, several of which have extensive and long-term experience in the area. The agreement builds on customary pastoralist land use
practices to build village-level incentives for wildlife conservation. The agreement has produced an important new framework for community-based conservation in Tanzanian village lands by overcoming existing institutional impediments to community involvement in wildlife conservation through a cost-effective and administratively simple PES structure.

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