WASHINGTON, July 22, 2013—Africa is home to nearly half of the world’s usable uncultivated land, some 202 million hectares that can be brought under the plow. Yet it has the highest poverty rate in the world. The continent’s poor development record suggests it has not leveraged its abundant agricultural land and natural resources to generate shared and sustained growth.
The overarching goal of this study was to understand the bottlenecks and the incentives present in forest management in the Kyrgyz Republic. The study focused on the legal, policy, social, institutional, and governance constraints that prevent rural communities living within and around forest lands from increasing the benefits they derive from the use of forest resources, while preserving fragile forest ecosystems.
The document provides a comprehensive study on past and current land management, including an overview of legislation on pasture access and management, and pratical examples of pasture management in practice.
Significant progress has been made over the past decade or so in the development of policy and legislation that support the recognition of customary rights to land, with important legal rulings in Tanzania, Uganda, Mozambique, South Sudan, and South Africa. At the same time, the strengthening of communities’ traditional rights to use resources has progressed through community forest reserves and community conservation areas.
In Laikipia the key dynamics centre on absentee land, much of this being land that was divvied out to Kikuyu by Kenyatta after independence. Much of this land (particularly north of the 600mm rainfall band) is not viable for cultivation. However, it was used by the Kikuyu title-holders as collateral to acquire loans with the Agricultural Development Corporation and others. Maasai, Samburu and Pokot herders have been grazing this land since the 1970s.
In Kenya, the pastoral Maasai’s districts have been the vanguard in rangeland tenure transitions and experimentation as pastoralists’ territory gave way to communal group ranches and to individual land holdings under diverse land-use activities. The tenure transformations have been accompanied by institutional and socio-economic changes that have had bearings on local communities’ capacities for collective action, pastoral livelihoods, and environmental sustainability.
IUCN’s work in Garba Tula (GT) through this project has now been underway for almost two years, and to date a number of activities have been implemented in the area. This has included: sensitization and awareness raising of local community members; providing support to help strengthen the operations of the Resource Advocacy Programme (RAP – a local NGO working in the Garba Tula area); and supporting work carried out by RAP members to document traditional institutions and strategies for governing natural resources in the Garba Tula area.
In order to address this problem and to guide its policy advocacy work, the ERETO project commissioned a study to review existing and planned policies and laws that currently touch upon pastoralism and analyse how they actually impact, or are likely to impact, on pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihoods. The policies and laws reviewed include those dealing with overall national development, those specific for the livestock sector, those dealing with access to pastoral resources, those dealing with conservation of wildlife and other natural resources, and those dealing with decentralisation a
The report considers the causes, processes and impacts of rangeland fragmentation on pastoralists in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. Causes and processes include privatisation of resources, commercial investment, invasion of land by non-native plants, commercialisation including growth in individual enclosures, and conservation/National Parks.