The overarching goal of this study was to understand the bottlenecks and the incentives present in forest management in the Kyrgyz Republic. The study focused on the legal, policy, social, institutional, and governance constraints that prevent rural communities living within and around forest lands from increasing the benefits they derive from the use of forest resources, while preserving fragile forest ecosystems. It includes a review of formal institutions and the policy and legislation underpinning forest management, as well as the de facto governance and use arrangements of communities in and near forested areas.