This lesson brief explores alternative biofuel production schemes in Tanzania and their impacts on rural land rights and local livelihoods. It is part of the Focus on Land in Africa: Land Tenure and Property Right online educational tool. Concerns over biofuel production are contributing to land use debates in Tanzania. Biofuel production can act as a source of agricultural income and economic growth in rural areas. Large-scale biofuel plantations, however, can also lead to rural land loss, landlessness, food insecurity and environmental degradation.