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This lesson brief explores the struggles women face in benefiting from their customary rights. It is part of the Uganda module on the Focus on Africa: Land Tenure and Property Rights online educational tool. Uganda is currently developing a National Land Policy which provides opportunities to address these challenges. Research shows that Ugandan women in Acholi, Langi, and Iteso societies have significant land rights under customary tenure arrangements. Many, however, face challenges in realizing their rights. Despite formal land laws that forbid discrimination against women, significant disparities between the rights of men and women arise from violation of customary law. The power of the clan authorities to enforce rules governing customary tenure have eroded over time, such that clan elders now often fail in their traditional duty to protect women and children.