Today, more than half the world’s population lives in cities. By 2030, it is projected that 6 in 10 people will be urban dwellers. By 2050, the figure will have risen to 6.5 billion people; representing two-thirds of all civilization. Taking into account the increasing rural to urban migration and the rapid growth of cities in the developing world, it is clear that cities face a myriad of problems that may hinder planned growth and development.
Land is an important asset for rural households, and having secure land rights is important for poverty reduction. Despite the large body of literature on the relationship between land tenure security, livelihoods, and poverty, most of this literature is based on household-level data and does not consider possible intrahousehold inequalities in land ownership.
PURPOSE: Livestock already use most global agricultural land, whereas the demand for animal-source food (ASF) is expected to increase. To address the contribution of livestock to global food supply, we need a measure for land use efficiency of livestock systems. METHODS: Existing measures capture different aspects of the debate about land use efficiency of livestock systems, such as plant productivity and the efficiency of converting feed, especially human-inedible feed, into animal products. So far, the suitability of land for cultivation of food crops has not been accounted for.
Rain-use efficiency (RUE; the ratio of vegetation productivity to annual precipitation) has been suggested as a measure for assessing land degradation in arid/semi-arid areas. In the absence of anthropogenic influence, RUE has been reported to be constant over time, and any observed change may therefore be attributed to non-rainfall impacts. This study presents an analysis of the decadal time-scale changes in the relationship between a proxy for vegetation productivity (ΣNDVI) and annual rainfall in the Sahel-Sudanian zone of Africa.
Remote sensing is considered the most effective tool for estimating evapotranspiration (ET) over large spatial scales. Global terrestrial ET estimates over vegetated land surfaces are now operationally produced at 1-km spatial resolution using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the MOD16 algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of this product, ground-based measurements of energy fluxes obtained from eddy covariance sites installed in tropical biomes and from a hydrological model (MGB-IPH) were used to validate MOD16 products at local and regional scales.
Monthly measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in peat soils were carried out and compared with groundwater level over a year at four sites (drained forest, upland cassava,upland and lowland paddy fields) located in Jambi province, Indonesia. Fluxes from swamp forest soils were also measured once per year as the native state of this investigated area.
The Fossa Bradanica in Basilicata (S Italy) is affected by almost 15% permanent Pleistocene and Holocene gullies. In the past decades climate versus land use management have dramatically increase both the soil loss rate and the muddy-flooding frequency. In this paper the impact of global change on soil production rates and erosion/deposition dynamics at medium-time scale (1949–2000) for two permanent gullies (Fosso Lavandaio and Fosso San Teodoro) has been studied.
Global efforts to reduce deforestation rely heavily on protected areas and land use restrictions. The effect of these restrictions on local communities is currently the subject of heated debate among conservation and development experts. Measuring the social impacts of protected areas is difficult because the effects cannot be isolated from other factors, given the nonrandom placement of protection.
Global biodiversity is changing rapidly driven by human alteration of habitat, and nowhere this is more dramatic than in insular habitats. Yet land-cover change is a complex phenomenon that not only involves habitat destruction but also forest recovery over different time scales. Therefore, we might expect species to respond in diverse ways with likely consequences for the reorganization of regional assemblages. These changes, however, may be different in tropical islands because of their low species richness, generalist habits and high proportion of endemics.
Widespread anthropogenic land-cover change over the last five centuries has influenced the global climate system through both biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Models indicate that warming from carbon emissions associated with land cover conversion have been partially offset if not outweighed by cooling from elevated albedo, but considerable uncertainty remains partly because of uncertainty in model treatments of albedo.