Myanmar

Myanmar is in the midst of rapid economic and social change, with dramatic consequences for land tenure. Under the military regimes that ruled Myanmar since 1962, the state was the main landowner, either directly or (after 1988) via proxy companies. In the current reform process, smallholders are reclaiming their legal land rights at the same time that foreign investment is flooding the country, placing all previous land use arrangements under increasing pressure.



Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, with 70% of the population working in agriculture,[1] although arable land makes up a relatively low 19% of national territory.[2] Once the largest rice exporter in Asia, Myanmar experienced a drop in production during the years of military control, and agriculture is now further threatened by environmental change and an influx of land-related investment. Land use varies between the rich rice paddies of the Ayeyarwady Delta, the central Dry Zone, and mountainous areas inhabited by ethnic minorities practicing shifting cultivation (taungya). These latter areas are now the site of numerous land concessions and natural resource extraction projects, leading to new cases of displacement and conflicts.[3]

Indicators

Total spending for agricultural reserch measured measured as a share of the value added from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities

Measurement unit
Percentage

Distribution of agricultural holders by sex (female - Share %) according to the FAO Land and Gender Database.

Measurement unit
Percentage

GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.

Measurement unit
PPP$ 2011

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Total funding for programmes still ongoing in January 2016 (US $).

Measurement unit
US$ (Current)

Total number of programmes still ongoing in January 2016

Measurement unit
Number

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Measurement unit
Number

Rural population refers to the share (%) of people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the ratio between Urban Population and Total Population.

Measurement unit
Percentage

Mapping

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

Compare countries

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Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country

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Arable land (1'000 Ha) is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

It measures the area (1'000 Ha) covered by forest.

Measurement unit
1'000 Ha

Land area is the total area (1'000 Ha) of the country excluding area under inland water bodies.

Permanent crops (1'000 Ha) - land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years (such as cocoa and coffee); land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Permanent meadows and pastures - land used permanently (five years or more) to grow herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land).

Measurement unit
1000 Ha

Infographics

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT)


Legend: National laws adoption of the VGGT principle
  • Fully adopt
  • Partially adopt
  • Not adopted
  • Missing Value

Note: The Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (The VGGTs) were endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security in 2012.

The "VGGT indicators" dataset has been created by Nicholas K. Tagliarino, PhD Candidate at the University of Groningen, with support from Daniel Babare and Myat Noe (LLB Students, University of Groningen). The indicators assess national laws in 50 countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America against international standards on expropriation, compensation, and resettlement as established by Section 16 of the VGGTs.

Each indicator relates to a principle established in section 16 of the VGGTs. Hold the mouse against the small "i" button above for a more detailed explanation of the indicator.

Answering the questions posed by these indicators entails analyzing a broad range of national-level laws, including national constitutions, land acquisition acts, land acts, community land acts, agricultural land acts, land use regulations, and some court decisions.

Disclaimer: The data displayed on the Land Portal is provided by third parties indicated as the data source or as the data provider. The Land Portal team is constantly working to ensure the highest possible standard of data quality and accuracy, yet the data is by its nature approximate and will contain some inaccuracies. The data may contain errors introduced by the data provider(s) and/or by the Land Portal team. In addition, this page allows you to compare data from different sources, but not all indicators are necessarily statistically comparable. The Land Portal Foundation (A) expressly disclaims the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any data and (B) shall not be liable for any errors, omissions or other defects in, delays or interruptions in such data, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. Neither the Land Portal Foundation nor any of its data providers will be liable for any damages relating to your use of the data provided herein.

Media

Latest News

Vietnam Country Portfolio Land Rights Land Tenure Land Grabbing Open Data
Cambodja
Global
Laos
Myanmar
Tailândia
Vietnam

Numa abordagem inclusiva concertada com os parceiros da região do Mekong, constrói um acesso sem precedentes a dados e informações sobre a terra

 
Para mais informações, por favor contacte: Henrique Pires dos Santos através do e-mail henrique.piresdossantos@landportal.info
 

Organizations

Library

Displaying 1 - 6 of 349
Conference Papers & Reports
Dezembro 2017
Myanmar

This presentation summarizes an on-going research in Myanmar, carried out by renowned agricultural specialist U San Thein and a team of experts, with the support of MRLG. This research is based on a thorough analysis of records on vacant, fallow and virgin land allotted for mainly agro-business projects between 1992 and 2016, and also an analysis of the reports of the Parliamentary Investigation Commission on land confiscation and the return of land. The study also included interview responses from key government staff in all concerned line ministries.

Conference Papers & Reports
Dezembro 2017
Cambodja
Myanmar
Vietnam

The Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG) project and the Forestry Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC) co-hosted the “Mekong Region Customary Tenure Workshop” on 7-9 March 2017 in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. This report outlines the main findings of the workshop, illustrated by some statements and case studies as presented by participants.

Journal Articles & Books
Dezembro 2017
Myanmar

Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG)'s first edition guidebook to customary tenure in Myanmar provides conceptual, legal and practical tools and resources to help civil society organizations guide communities through the process of documenting customary tenure at the local level. Written by Celine Allaverdian, Julia Fogerite, Natalia Scurrah, Si Thu Than Htike in cooperation with the Learning and Alliance partners, including Farmers and Landworkers

Institutional & promotional materials
Dezembro 2017
Cambodja
Myanmar
Tailândia
Vietnam

Summary report of Mekong Region Land Governance (MRLG)'s online dialogue on 'Recognition of Customary Tenure in the Mekong Region' held in 2017, containing justification for the dialogue, key take-aways, next steps and recommended resources, published by MRLG in 2017.

Reports & Research
Dezembro 2017
China
Myanmar

International borders and associated borderlands—especially as viewed at the national and international scales, and via regional and global-scale maps—are generally thought of as being primarily governed by national governments. In reality, however, national borders and associated borderlands are complex and varied spaces, ones that are governed not only through national laws and regulations, but also an array of policies and localized practices, both formal and informal, conceived and implemented by government agencies and other non-government entities operating at various scales.

Policy Papers & Briefs
Dezembro 2017
Cambodja
Myanmar
Tailândia
Vietnam

A discussion paper on civil society's participation in land policy-making, focused on the pre-consultation phase of Myanmar's National Land Use Policy. Written by Eben Forbes, with research assistance from Dr. Nu Nu Khin and
Yadana Than Htaik, and published by Land Core Group, Loka Ahlinn and Mekong Region Land Governance in February 2017.