Egypt has a population of about 80 million people who live and work in only 4% of the country, concentrated along the Nile River. Although land is distributed relatively equitably, agricultural land is scarce and the high level of population growth has reduced land per capita. With 57% of the total population living in rural areas and 29% of the total labor force working in the agriculture sector, agriculture accounts for 14% of the country’s total GDP.
The Egyptian civil code adopted legislation based on old Egyptian codes, Sharia Law, as well as European and American laws and regulations. In 1952, Law No. 178 set forth the principles for land distribution, which limited the total amount of land per household to 84 hectares and redistributed excess holdings to poor rural households. Law No.96 of 1992, altered some of these provisions to address rent increases and eliminated the permanent and inheritable rights of tenants. Customary law is recognized, but claims based on customary rights can be presented only by individuals. Tribes or clans are excluded from these claims. Customary rights were recently partially recognized in desert lands. In 1969, the state nationalized all unregistered land and made it available for individuals or private companies.
In Egypt, land disputes predominately concern contested land ownership and inheritance claims, contested land boundaries and access to natural resources, water in particular. Land disputes are generally adjudicated by the courts according to formal laws, customs or Islamic Law. The courts are often inaccessible to the rural poor because bringing a case before the courts implies an expensive process and due to the influence of police and landowners who are said to block rural tenants from accessing the courts.
Source: New Jersey Herald
Author: Haggag Salama
LUXOR, Egypt (AP) — Hundreds of Egypt's ethnic minority Nubians have blocked a main road in the country's south to protest the government's plan to sell land they claim to be their ancestral territory.
Monday's protest, on the road between the city of Aswan and the Abu Simbel archaeological site, came after police last weekend prevented a group of Nubians from returning to their land.
Strengthening Arab Women's Property Rights and Access to Land - PPT
Improving Women's Access to Land and Property in The Arab States: The Role Of Inheritance, Dower, and Marital Property
The countries in North Africa share an arid and semi-arid environment with high diversity: mountainous areas run alongside maritime areas and desert. The population of the region was estimated at 160 million people in 2005 and is expected to be more than 270 million in 2030. Most of the population will live in urban areas. Currently, urban dwellers in North Africa represent more than 50% of the population and are expected to be more than 60% by 2030. However, the urban system in North Africa is suffering urban primacy.
The increased density and sprawl of
Cairo's urban areas are the consequence of a number of
factors, of which the major ones are the physical and
geographic features, transport supply, urban policy and the
control of urban development, market laws, government aid,
property developers, consumer sensitivity to building
quality and costs, travelling distances, tariffs, the
immediate surrounding area, etc. The purpose of this study
The rural economy of developing
countries has long been regarded as synonymous with
agriculture but in recent years this view has begun to
change. Such diverse activities as government, commerce, and
services are now seen as providing most income in rural
households. Applying decomposition analysis to two new
nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt
and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of
The intensive development of tourism in
the Gulf of Aqaba presents both an opportunity and a dilemma
for Egypt. Intensive tourism, if left unmanaged, can inflict
irreversible damage on coral reef and desert ecosystems and
curtail the area's economic potential. Together with
current projections for a rapid expansion of the tourism
base in the Aqaba coast, degradation from mounting
recreational activities give rise to serious concerns about
This sector report on Challenges and
Priorities for Rural Development analyzes why Upper Egypt
has lagged behind the rest of the country and to help the
Government of Egypt and stakeholders to define a framework
for interventions to promote broad-based economic growth and
human development that will reach the poor and improve
welfare in rural Upper Egypt. To achieve this objective, the
strategic framework for intervention proposed here has two