Date of publication
août 2014
Geographical focus

Geographic targeting is perhaps the most
popular mechanism used to direct social programs to the poor
in Latin America. The author empirically compares geographic
targeting indicators available in Peru. He combines
household-level information from the 1994 and 1997 Peru
Living Standards Measurement Surveys and district-level
information from the 1993 Peru Population and Housing
Census. He then conducts a series of simulations that
estimate leakage rates; concentration curves; the impact of
transfers on poverty as measured by the headcount index,
poverty gap, and [poverty] measures of the
Foster-Greer-Thorbecke family; and nonparametric (kernal)
densities when transfers are based on alternative
indicators. He concludes that there is substantial potential
for geographic targeting in Peru. The differences in
outcomes across geographic targeting indicators are small
and not statistically significant.

Date of publication
août 2012
Geographical focus

Poverty and economic stagnation
characterize most rural areas in Peru. National growth has
been slow and uneven since the mid-1970s, benefiting urban
areas rather than rural ones. Between 1985 and 2000, the
number of poor people increased by 71 percent. The incidence
of poverty (67 percent) and extreme poverty (40 percent) is
highest in rural areas, reaching 73 percent (poverty) and 41
percent (extreme poverty) in the sierra. This means that 4.2
million rural people live with incomes 30 percent below the
poverty line and 2.3 million people live in extreme poverty.
Regional specific policies to fight poverty may be
warranted, notably a strategy for rural development in the
sierra aiming for more equitable economic growth and reduced
poverty. This brief includes the following headlines:
detailed analysis; recommendations; notes; lessons learned;
about the author; and about 'en breve'.

Date of publication
août 2012
Geographical focus

The Andean region of Puno, known as the
altiplano, is located at 3,830 meters above sea level. The
terrain is prone to flooding, and thus difficult to
cultivate. In order to deal with this situation, Andean
indigenous populations displaced huge amounts of soil in
order to create raised fields that were better adapted to
agricultural use. Raised fields resolved many of the
problems that affect agriculture at high altitude. The
technology combines the rehabilitation of marginal soils,
drainage improvement, increased water storage, more
efficient use of radiant energy, and attenuation of the
effects of frosts. The raised platform allows farmers to
double the depth of topsoil for crops, and provides dry
surfaces in the wet and often flooded lake and river terrain.

Date of publication
juin 2012
Geographical focus

This report on a key to poverty
reduction in Peru identifies a number of cost-effective
policy interventions that could be adopted in the short and
medium term to support sustainable development goals as the
Government of Peru attempts to combat the problems of
inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene; urban air
pollution; natural disasters; lead exposure; indoor air
pollution; land degradation; deforestation; and inadequate
municipal waste collection. The report has 10 chapters.
Chapter I presents an overview of the report. Chapter 2
examines the evolution of Peru's environmental
management framework over the last five decades. The
analysis presented in Chapter 2 finds that the country has
developed a considerable institutional capacity associated
with important achievements in the areas of natural resource
and biodiversity management. Chapter 3 analyzes the cost of
environmental degradation in Peru. The analysis shows that
the environment-related problems with the highest costs are,
in decreasing order, inadequate water supply, sanitation,
and hygiene; urban air pollution; natural disasters; lead
pollution; indoor air pollution; soil degradation;
inadequate municipal waste collection; and deforestation.
Chapter 4 focuses on the health impacts of environmental
degradation on both urban and rural communities. The chapter
estimates the costs and benefits of various interventions to
address waterborne diseases, indoor air pollution, and urban
air pollution in Peru. Chapter 5 discusses problems
associated with natural disasters, particularly floods and
landslides. Chapter 6 analyzes the issues associated with
the management of fisheries resources. Chapter 7 discusses
the main challenges associated with the sustainable use of
Peru's natural resources, particularly water, forests,
biodiversity, and soils. Chapter 8 discusses sectoral
environmental management in Peru, which has been
fundamentally based on the environmental impact assessment
(EM) system. The analysis finds that the effectiveness of
EIA in Peru is, however, undermined by the lack of a uniform
perspective regarding its objectives and usefulness. Chapter
9 reviews the environmental management framework in Peru and
assesses the complex institutional system of checks and
balances. Chapter I O presents the CEA's conclusions
and recommendations. The conclusions stress that, while
there has been considerable progress in the last decades in
addressing the biodiversity conservation agenda, high
urbanization rates suggest the need to increase emphasis on
environmental health issues.

Date of publication
mai 2012
Geographical focus

This book argues that Peru faces an
unprecedented opportunity to become the next success story
in Latin America. In the coming five years, policy making
could put the country on a development path similar to the
one that, say, Chile, Costa Rica, or Spain have followed
over the last two decades. This book includes 32
sector-specific chapters and 2 historical perspectives that
precede them. The beginning chapter, a synthesis, builds a
comprehensive reform agenda that highlights possible
sequencing and priorities. It is organized in five
sections-the main messages, the three strategic challenges
in Peru's development, and a path for action over the
next five years.

Date of publication
juin 2012
Geographical focus

The rural roads program, overseen by
Provias Descentralizado (subdivision of Peru's Ministry
of Transportation and Communications), began in 1995, and
has received funds from the Peruvian Government, the World
Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. It is a
national program for the rehabilitation and maintenance of
roads that link rural communities and villages with
secondary and principal roads, and through these, with towns
and cities of the interior, thus expanding Peru's road
network to the rural village level, especially in regions
with greater levels of poverty. In its twelve years of
existence, the program has been evaluated several times in
terms of its impact on the economy (income levels, market
dynamics), on gender equity, on the culture of the high
Andes, on access to basic roads, and on rural living
conditions (access to education, health, etc.). However, no
effort had been made to systematically understand its
impacts on democracy and the quality of citizenship
exercised in rural areas. The study that is presented here,
commissioned by the World Bank in February 2007, has sought
to analyze PCR's impacts, using two general hypotheses
that make it possible to explore the relationships between
public roads and democracy. The first suggests that road
integration, particularly the rehabilitation and maintenance
of roads that link rural villages with district or
provincial capitals, decreases the costs of democratic
participation. In a context of increasing participatory
supply, due to the ongoing recurrence of national and
municipal electoral processes, as well as to the creation of
new rights of participation, new roads allow rural residents
to take part in democratic decision making processes without
having to incur significantly higher costs than those of
residents of urban centers. The second hypothesis is more
specific to the Peru Rural Roads Program (PCR, for its
Spanish acronym); it suggests that the way in which the
program operates, its institutional arrangements and the
institutions to which it provides its services, strengthens
democracy, and local civil society, strengthens new leaders,
improves local management skills, and aids in political
inclusion, particularly that of more vulnerable sectors.


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