Date of publication
août 2013
Geographical focus

This staff sector assessment note
accompanies the recently completed national environmental
action plan for sustainable development (NEAP-SD), which, as
an output of the Industrial Pollution Control Project in
Algeria, focused on charting a new course for environmental
management in the country, based on an objective assessment
of past policy, and institutional failures, on a new
consensus on the need for mainstreaming the environment into
economic management, and sectoral policies, and, on the
implementation of a priority action plan, fully integrated
with the government three-year economic revival program. The
social cost of environmental degradation is already quite
significant, and will continue to increase if policies,
institutional, and investment measures are not provided. The
NEAP-SD serves as a vehicle for building bridges with
non-governmental organizations, and donors, and enhance the
prospects for improved coordination, as well as helping
inform the ongoing process of Country Assistance Strategy
(CAS). Recommendations suggest the use of high impact
strategic lending, with contributions supporting water and
wastewater, urban, and rural development, including natural
resource management, incorporating environmental objectives,
but focused on fundamental challenges that address public
sector efficiency and governance, private sector
development, and water management, through partnerships
focused on flexible responsiveness, in an approach to
integrate the environment into the Bank's instruments,
building capacity, and strengthening environmental, and
institutional assistance.

Date of publication
juillet 2013
Geographical focus

This investment climate assessment is
part of a series of analytical works on prepared by the
World Bank with the aim of laying out the basis for the
elaboration of the Bank's country assistance strategy
for the country. It is based on three pieces of work
undertaken in parallel in Algeria between January 2002 and
march 2003: an investment climate survey of 562 Algerian
firms, policy work resulting from a series of four missions
to Algeria; and a foreign investors survey of 57 European
investors from France, Italy and Spain. The report is
organized as follows: chapter I gives a general background
of the main macroeconomic issues in Algeria, recent
developments, and a brief description of the enterprise
sector. Chapter II presents the main findings of the ICA
survey, with a particular focus on differences among types
of firms (size, ownership, sector and age). It also
estimates the effect of the investment climate on
productivity and wages. Summaries of the main institutional
issues and policy recommendations complement the
quantitative assessments of the constraints. In each area,
international comparisons are presented, based on similar
surveys in other countries or other sources. It also
includes a summary of the findings of the potential foreign
investors survey. Chapter III builds on the survey
evidence to identify the priority institutional reforms
needed to improve the investment climate in Algeria. As a
result, a short to medium term strategy for private sector
development is proposed, which includes a detailed set of
reform actions.

Date of publication
juin 2012
Geographical focus

The fiscal space generated by a
prolonged oil windfall has enabled Algeria to embark on a
massive public investment program for 2005- 09, Programme
Complementaire de Soutien a la Croissance (PCSC). Taking
advantage of the current macroeconomic and fiscal
opportunity, the country could institutionalize high-quality
public expenditure that would contribute social benefit far
into the future. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) is an
exercise to help the Government toward that end. The
objectives of this PER are to assist the government in the
following: evaluate fiscal sustainability in light of the
country's fiscal push that PCSC represents; set high
technical standards for public investment management; draw
lessons from the on-going budget modernization reform in
order to support the overall implementation, monitoring, and
evaluation of projects; support the preparation of a
medium-term expenditure framework and improve the efficiency
and cost-benefit of investments in four key sectors,
transport and public works, water, education, and health.

Date of publication
janvier 1979
Geographical focus

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) - currently ratified by 187 countries - is the only human rights treaty that deals specifically with rural women (Art. 14). Adopted in 1979 by the United Nations Generally Assembly, entered into force in 1981. The Convention defines discrimination against women as follows:

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field (Art. 1).

The Convention covers civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. Notably, it contains obligations on State Parties also in respect of discrimination by private parties, or in private contexts. Furthermore, CEDAW considers both de jure (in law) and de facto (in practice) discrimination. States that ratified - or otherwise acceded to - the Convention are legally bound to put its provisions in practice, even if they made reservations, which shouldn't be in any way "incompatible with the object and purpose" of the Convention (Art. 28).

Because it sets an international standard of women's human rights in areas such as education, employment, health care, marriage and family relations, politics, finance, and law, CEDAW provides a platform for lobbying governments to promote gender equality and hold them accountable at international level. CEDAW has been an important advocacy tool of the women's movement over the last 30 years.

States Parties of the Convention should submit periodic reports to the CEDAW Committee on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the Convention (Art. 18). Civil society can present "shadow reports".  

Art. 14, 15 and 16 of CEDAW specifically deal with rural women, ownership of land, inheritance rights and right to access property. You can read the Convention on the OHCHR website, where you can also find information on past and current Sessions of the CEDAW Committe, including official States' Reports and civil society "shadow reports", the Committee's Concluding Observations, and General Recommendations.

Finally, you can find information for NGO participation.

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